#GayMarriage and the Dysfunctions of Modernity (Answering the Stupid Question: How will gays marrying affect your marriage?)April 1, 2013
Proof Of “God Particle” Found? Science is way too ambitious to be practical. we already have bombs. Exploring this is like the Nazis in Raiders opening up the Ark of the Covenant. They have no idea what they are unleashing. (h/t Pat Dollard)
Associated Press, GENEVA: Scientists working at the world’s biggest atom smasher plan to announce Wednesday that they have gathered enough evidence to show that the long-sought “God particle” answering fundamental questions about the universe almost certainly does exist.
But after decades of work and billions of dollars spent, researchers at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN, say they aren’t quite ready to say they’ve “discovered” the particle.
Instead, experts familiar with the research at CERN’s vast complex on the Swiss-French border say that the massive data they have obtained will essentially show the footprint of the key particle known as the Higgs boson — all but proving it exists — but doesn’t allow them to say it has actually been glimpsed.
It appears to be a fine distinction. Senior CERN scientists say that the two independent teams of physicists who plan to present their work at CERN’s vast complex on the Swiss-French border on July 4 are about as close as you can get to a discovery without actually calling it one.
“I agree that any reasonable outside observer would say, `It looks like a discovery,”‘ British theoretical physicist John Ellis, a professor at King’s College London who has worked at CERN since the 1970s, told The Associated Press. “We’ve discovered something which is consistent with being a Higgs.”
CERN’s atom smasher, the $10 billion Large Hadron Collider, has been creating high-energy collisions of protons to help them understand suspected phenomena such as dark matter, antimatter and ultimately the creation of the universe billions of years ago, which many theorize occurred as a massive explosion known as the Big Bang.
For particle physicists, finding the Higgs boson is a key to confirming the standard model of physics that explains what gives mass to matter and, by extension, how the universe was formed.
Rob Roser, who leads the search for the Higgs boson at the Fermilab in Chicago, says “particle physicists have a very high standard for what it takes to be a discovery” and thinks it is a hair’s breadth away.
Rosen compared the results scientists are preparing to announce Wednesday to finding the fossilized imprint of a dinosaur: “You see the footprints and the shadow of the object, but you don’t actually see it.”
By Abigail Klein Leichman
It’s the fight of the century: in one corner, the bacteria known as “superbugs,” and in the other corner the antibacterial drugs known as antibiotics. In bout after bout, newer and stronger superbugs are besting the antibiotics. And that alarms public health officials across the world, because drug-resistant bacteria cause infections – especially in already ill hospital patients — that are fatal 30 to 60 percent of the time.“Trying to keep pace with these ‘superbugs’ means always pulling out a new rabbit from the hat and using it for the next few years till there is another explosion of strains capable of overcoming it,” says Dr. Micha Fridman of Tel Aviv University’s Department of Chemistry. “This is a constant battle that I believe is never going to end.”
While scientists in Europe and North America continue the spiral of producing more powerful antibiotics to fight ever more powerful bacteria, Fridman and his University of Michigan research partner approached the problem from a different angle – one that uses the superbug’s own mechanics to develop antibiotics capable of delivering a decisive knockout punch.
Instead of looking for yet another “rabbit,” Fridman and Prof. Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova and their research teams studied exactly how bacteria resist antibiotics. One method involves a protein or enzyme “machine” inside them that modifies the drugs.
Fridman explains this phenomenon to ISRAEL21C with the analogy of a key and keyhole. “There’s a keyhole in the door, and the door doesn’t want you to open it, so it somehow changes the keyhole and then you cannot push in the key,” he says.
As soon as a superbug’s “machine” recognizes the antibacterial “key,” it confounds the drug with a deactivating molecule. This additional molecule renders the antibiotic unable to reach its target.
The scientists described in the current issue of the journal ChemBioChem how they isolated the “machines” from superbugs. Then they chemically induced them to add a molecule that strengthens, rather than weakens, the antibiotic. Once an activating molecule is added, the superbug’s machine is incapable of adding a deactivating one.
In other words, Fridman and Garneau-Tsodikova found a way to beat the bacteria at its own game. Their lab-induced chemical alteration increases the antibacterial drug’s ability to fight bacteria and – most importantly — locks out the deactivating molecule that is the secret of the superbug’s winning strategy.
Dr. Micha Fridman and his research team
Dr. Micha Fridman and his research team at the eighth meeting of the Section of Medicinal Chemistry of the Israel Chemical Society.
“Any sort of bacteria that uses this specific machine would not be able to deactivate antibiotics anymore,” Fridman tells ISRAEL21c.
Potential antibiotics enhanced by the duo’s discovery are a few years away from the market, since the full process of testing and government approvals is long and tedious – and only then can pharmaceutical companies begin mass-producing the drugs. But it is generating considerable interest, because the ability to beat bacterial resistance has become one of the holy grails in health care.
Other scientists are working on it, too. A three-year consortium of 14 European institutes was established in February 2009 to study the biology of drug-resistant bacteria and design novel strategies to kill them. And it was recently reported that a UK scientist has isolated a toxin from cockroaches that may hold promise in the superbug war.
In the meantime, hospitals worldwide are focusing more on prevention than treatment as existing antibiotics constantly lose effectiveness. Resistant bacteria have been reported by hospitals in at least 35 states of the United States, and cause deaths worldwide. In August, an outbreak at University College London Hospital killed one premature baby and sickened 12 others. Ironically, one of the most recent superbug battles took place right in Tel Aviv, where a hospital outbreak was traced to a patient visiting from New Jersey.
Tel Aviv is also where Fridman’s approach will soon be put to the test against many different problematic bacterial strains, at Ichilov Hospital-Sourasky Medical Center. This kind of study is tricky to carry out, said Fridman, because special equipment and procedures must be in place to safely deal with these dangerous superbugs.
The family of antibiotics his team chose to engineer is the one used commonly to treat respiratory infections in people with cystic fibrosis. “We do hope that some of the advances based on our methodologies can cope with this because it can be very lethal,” says Fridman.
He and Garneau-Tsodikova, who met at Harvard Medical School during their post-doctoral studies, financed their research with a two-year grant from BIRD, the Israel-US Binational Science Foundation and have applied for renewal.
“She sends students to me, I send students to her, and we are in touch through email and three times a week on Skype. We always write to each other about every single finding we have,” he says. They also visit periodically; Garneau-Tsodikova is due for a visit to Israel in January..
Signified is the form. Signifier is the Symbol and Concept that contains information. when layered the original form and concept become mythology.
if data can be lost and the meaning changed by layering the form and concept then we know that the object is not merely data. even the original signifier may be false.
How much do you want to bet that this will not stop the Chazar claim of Arabs? Genetic study sheds light on Jewish diasporaJune 13, 2010
The researchers analysed genetic samples from 14 Jewish communities across the world and compared them with those from 69 non-Jewish populations.
Their study, published in Nature, revealed that most Jewish populations were “genetically closer” to each other than to their non-Jewish neighbours.
It also revealed genetic ties between globally dispersed Jews and non-Jewish populations in the Middle East.
This fits with the idea that most contemporary Jews descended from ancient Hebrew and Israelite residents in the Middle Eastern region known as the Levant. It provides a trace of the Jewish diaspora.
How much do you want to bet that this will not stop the Chazar claim of Arabs?