Romney: What He Knows About Palestine That Bush and Rice Would Not Acknowledge

September 20, 2012


One of the most refreshing pieces of news in a long time in the U.S. is that Mitt Romney clearly understands that a two-state solution between Israel and Palestine will never happen. Why? Because Palestine will not accept Israel’s right to exist. It’s that simple. George Bush would not acknowledge that fact. Condoleeza Rice wouldn’t acknowledge the fact. The Palestinian Authority and Hamas can fix the problem – not the U.S., not Russia, not the Arab League.

Mitt Romney

The website Mother Jones released a recording of Romney’s remarks made at a private fundraiser. Jimmy Carter’s grandson with the assistance of Mother Jones comumnist, David Corn, secretly recorded the event.
According to M-Jones, Romney said this:

“I look at the Palestinians not wanting to see peace anyway, for political purposes, committed to the destruction and elimination of Israel, and these thorny issues, and I say there’s just no way.”
[S]o what you do is, you say, you move things along the best way you can. You hope for some degree of stability, but you recognize that this is going to remain an unsolved problem…and we kick the ball down the field and hope that ultimately, somehow, something will happen and resolve it.”

Then the Leftist website went on to translate:

Romney was indicating he did not believe in the peace process and, as president, would aim to postpone significant action

If Mother Jones can translate, so can I. Romney didn’t “indicate,” he would postpone significant action, he acknowledged there would be no significant action for a two-state solution without the Palestinian Authority and Hamas accepting Israel’s right to exist. The U.S. cannot make it happen, nor Russia.
There would have been a two-state solution years ago, had the various governing Palestinian factions simply acknowledged Israel’s right to exist as a people. That’s what Israel has asked for to get final talks moving, and they have asked for it for years. Palestinian Charters and their versions of a Constitution call for the extermination of Israel. Israel wants the language removed, and Palestine has refused.
Jihad Watch May 31, 2011:

Whereas Hamas openly denies Israel’s right to exist in both English and Arabic, the PA professes in English before the international community to have recognized Israel’s right to exist. As documented by Palestinian Media Watch, when addressing its own people in Arabic, the PA – like Hamas – completely denies Israel’s right to exist.

In the same JihadWatch article linked above, long before the movie 2016: Obama’s America came out, Robert Spencer documents that the Palestinian Authority considers Jews and the Nation of Israel  colonialists, and having no connection to the land. As D’Souza in 2016 clearly demonstrated: colonialism is at the bottom of Obama’s agenda. Remember Obama Senior’s close friend, saying during an interview with D’Souza, that Senior ‘hated’ colonialism and the friend still ‘hates’ it today – he spit the words out and you could feel the deep-seeded emotion behind his hate. 2016 shows the former colonized areas of the world and the help Obama has given them, specifically, while denying America’s own interests. Then there’s the Churchill bust that was out of the White House immediately upon Obama’s arrival there. I believe D’Souza was spot-on.

“The Zionists must acknowledge publicly, in front of the world, that the Jews have no connection to the Palestinian Arab land, upon whose ruins arose the colonialist settler Zionist plan that settles and expels, represented by the Israeli apartheid state. That which occurred two thousand years ago (i.e., the Jewish/Israeli presence in the land), assuming that it is true, represents in the book of history nothing more than invention and falsification and a coarse and crude form of colonialism.” [Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, May 27, 2011]

A two-state solution will never happen until and unless Palestine acknowledges Israel’s right to exist. George W. Bush had to know this, yet he continued with his two-state talks that he surely knew would disappoint time after time. I don’t know what Condi Rice actually understood about the region and history, but her stern push for Israel to bow without being recognized is unforgivable.
Benjamin Netanyahu, in 2009, stated again, he was open to a two-state solution:
In “a very good meeting” that lasted 79 minutes, Netanyahu said, he and Obama discussed “our quest for peace with the Palestinians.” And during that meeting, he added, “I outlined my vision of a demilitarized Palestinian state” that would recognize “the Jewish state.”…
“The problem we face is to make sure that doesn’t repeat itself,” he said. Israel’s withdrawal from Lebanon was “step one,” its evacuation from Gaza was “step two,” and the country “cannot afford step 3.”
In his remark about Jerusalem, made in response to a question from the audience, the Israeli leader said, “Everyone knows that there are Jewish neighborhoods in Jerusalem that under any peace plan will remain where they are.”
That implied that other neighborhoods of Jerusalem may not remain “where they are” and could become part of an eventual Palestinian state, Uriel Hellman of the JTA reported. The JTA interpreted the remark as “a hint that that his government’s insistence on Israeli sovereignty over all of Jerusalem might not be ironclad.” Source
Israel Matzav March 2012:

The latest round of rocket fire from Gaza underscored just how ill-considered it would be to relinquish more land to the Palestinians in Judea and Samaria. The recent Harvard one-state conference demonstrated how clinging to an unfeasible formula has merely generated the opportunity to promote even more menacing alternatives.

For whatever the final contours of a putative Palestinian state, it would entail a frontier of at least 300 kilometers – approximately six times longer than the Gaza front – much of which would be adjacent to Israel’s most populous urban centers, from the environs of Haifa in the north to Beersheba and beyond in the south. (Significantly, Beersheba is much closer to the pre-1967 border of the “West Bank” than it is to the Gaza Strip).
Moreover, unlike in Gaza, a Palestinian state in Judea and Samaria would reduce Israel’s width in its most populous areas to a minuscule 11-25 km. – roughly the distance from Beverly Hills to Malibu along Sunset Boulevard.
Even more important than geographic expanse – or the lack thereof – is topographical structure. Unlike the flat Gaza Strip, the limestone hills that comprise the “West Bank” dominate the urbanized Coastal Plain, together with much of Israel’s vital infrastructure, its only international airport, vital centers of civilian government and military command – and 80 percent of its population and commercial activity. ~ Martin Sherman

In 2007, The Arab League endorsed recognizing Israel. Hamas did not.

The team of international peace brokers – the United States, United Nations, Russia and the European Union – has demanded that the PA government recognize Israel, renounce violence and abide by previously signed peace agreements in order to lift the sanctions imposed in the wake of the 2006 Hamas election victory.
“We are demanding that the government meet these three conditions,” Livni stressed.
The Arab initiative, drafted at a March 2002 meeting of the Arab League in Beirut, calls for the full normalization of ties between Israel and the Arab world in return for a complete Israeli withdrawal from all lands captured in the 1967 Six-Day War. Source

Homes in Jerusalem’s Old City

Israel has been willing to go back to 1967 borders, but must have the assurance of a true peace, otherwise their borders are not defensible, as has been proven over and over. How can you live side-by-side with those pledging to kill you when your borders allow no safety for the people? Read a reminder of how Israel gained territory in 1967 and why.

Mother Jones says Romney spoke of “the Palestinians as a united bloc of one mindset,” and indeed he did, because he knows who rules, and it isn’t ordinary Palestinians trying to live a normal life.  The issue is the acceptance of the right of Israel to exist.

Condi may be clueless but Obama is worse

November 2, 2011

Condi is not to be trusted by the GOP. Her allegiance is to people who are presently literally part of Obama’s foreign policy. Yes, I’m not kidding. Baker is in Obama’s team and that is the Saudi lobby. She might of grown up near Bibi’s family house in Colorado, but her bread got buttered by Aramco/Chevron and that allegiance to it’s board is still there. I could never see demonizing oil companies, but it is time to discriminate between obtaining oil locally in North America and being a slave to interests in the status quo in the Arabian peninsula and North Africa.

(h/t Carl) Former US Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice has finally gotten around to blasting the Obama administration for its obsession with Jewish ‘settlements.’

“When you look at where we are now, we’re a long, long way back from where we were,” Rice said in an interview with AP.
Rice said she had hoped that the Obama administration could revive stalled peace talks quickly when it took office in 2009, but she said she was disappointed by the new administration’s handling of the delicate issue of new Israeli housing construction in the West Bank.
“I do think focusing on settlements in that particular way was a mistake,” Rice said. “The parties then were able to have a reason not to sit down.”
The gulf has only widened, Rice said, “and they’re running out of time.” She did not sound optimistic for a settlement soon, or even for new talks. “When they’re not talking, they’re sliding backward,” Rice said.

Rice herself had called settlement building unhelpful and was infuriated when Israel appeared to undercut her by announcing new building licenses hard on the heels of some of her diplomatic visits.
But new Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and her Mideast envoy, George Mitchell, took a much harder line in the spring of 2009, demanding a full freeze on any building.
Obama “wants to see a stop to settlements,” including the expansion of existing developments, Clinton said in May of that year.
With Israelis suspicious of Obama even before he assumed office, the settlement position further unnerved them. The Palestinians, initially encouraged, became disillusioned when the U.S. was unable to persuade Israel to freeze settlement construction.

She’s obviously angling to get her old job back in a Republican administration in 2013. Someone please tell me it will be Bolton instead.

she just said: “the U.S. was unable to persuade Israel to freeze settlement construction. “? Not true at all and she would know this. The Israelis did stop for what was agreed (a little less the a year), but got no cooperation from the Arabs.


Rice reveals concessions in 2008 peace talks

November 1, 2011

New memoir by former secretary of state reveals details on Israeli-Palestinian peace talks; was “impressed” by Olmert’s desire for a deal.

(REBECCA ANNA STOIL, JPOST CORRESPONDENT) WASHINGTON – A new memoir by former US secretary of state Condoleezza Rice will be released Tuesday, but the lengthy book has already raised uproars in Israel and abroad before it hits the shelves. Rice’s description of the failure of the 2008 peace talks demonstrated key silences regarding American understanding of the Palestinian position, as detailed in papers leaked to the press earlier this year.

Rice said that in spring of 2008 both she and then-president George W. Bush had “both been impressed by Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert’s desire to get a deal.”
The former secretary of state recounted an evening in Jerusalem in May when she was asked to dine alone with Olmert. The then-prime minister presented her with an outline for a peace plan.
“I know what [Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas] needs. He needs something on refugees and on Jerusalem. I’ll give him enough land, maybe something like 94 percent with swaps. I have an idea about Jerusalem. There will be two capitals, one for us in west Jerusalem and one for the Palestinians in east Jerusalem.
The mayor of the joint-city council will be selected by population percentage. That means an Israeli mayor, so the deputy should be a Palestinian. We will continue to provide security for the Holy sites because we can assure access to them,” Olmert told her.
“I’ll accept some Palestinians into Israel, maybe five thousand.
I don’t want it to be called ‘family reunification’ because they have too many cousins; we won’t be able to control it. I’ve been thinking about how to administer the Old City. There should be a committee of people – not officials but wise people – from Jordan, Saudi Arabia, the Palestinians, the United States and Israel. They will oversee the city but not in a political role,” he continued.
Rice recalled her incredulity: “Am I really hearing this? I wondered. Is the Israeli prime minister saying that he’ll divide Jerusalem and put an international body in charge of the Holy sites? Concentrate. Write this down. No, don’t write it down. What if it leaks? It can’t leak; it’s just the two of us.”
Rice said that she visited Abbas in Ramallah the next day. “I sketched out the details of Olmert’s proposal and told him how the prime minister wanted to proceed. Abbas started negotiating immediately. “I can’t tell four million Palestinians that only 5,000 of them can go home,” he said.”
While Rice is silent on the ensuing breakdown of talks – missing pieces are actually supplied by the Palestine Papers – documents memorializing 10 years of Palestinian-Israeli negotiations that were stolen from Saeb Erekat’s office and posted on al-Jazeera’s website last January.
Although Palestinian negotiators spoke publicly about compromise on refugees, privately they spoke of the “right of return” as a matter of individual choice that would have to be extended to each of over seven million people and with Palestinians retaining the open-ended right to try to negotiate additional “returns” beyond any number initially agreed upon in a peace treaty.
Abbas was simply unprepared to accept any offer that did not allow for the “right of return.”
Rice recounted how on September 16, 2008 Olmert presented Abbas with a groundbreaking offer for a two-state solution including a map outlining the territory of a Palestinian state. Rice confirmed reports that Olmert insisted that Abbas sign then and there, but that Abbas “demurred, wanting to consult his experts before signing.”
Olmert, Rice said, refused to give Abbas the map – a fact that the Palestinians have said proves that Olmert’s offer was not serious.
But the Palestine Papers indicate that on September 16, the Palestinians drew-up a map that seems to outline with great specificity the offer made by Olmert, in spite of the fact that they complained he would not give them a copy of the map.
Abbas asked for a meeting the next day with his advisers present.
The meeting the next day was never held – Rice did not say why, but Olmert has since said that he received a call from Saeb Erekat requesting that the meeting be postponed.
The US administration seems to have been unaware that in preparation for the September 16 meeting the PA was trying to generate escape plans from reaching a binding agreement with Olmert, while at the same time avoiding being blamed for not reaching a final status agreement.
“SE [PA Negotiator Saeb Erekat] thinks there are three ways [Abbas] could respond: (1) Give [Olmert] our Framework Agreement on Permanent Status, (2) Issue general communique about Annapolis progress, (3) Simply say no to the offer,” one September 9, 2008 memo from Hala Rasheed read.
“He wants us to think up other ways to respond. Whatever we propose, he wants to make sure that: (a) we are not blamed, (b) [negotiations] are uninterrupted, and (c) no submission is made that we cannot retract.”
A memo to other NSU members dated September 16 from Wassim Khazmo, a communications adviser on the PA negotiating team, revealed that Palestinians intended to treat the September 16 meeting as “ceremonial” rather than directed toward advancing negotiations and possibly reaching a peace agreement.
“In order to avoid the blame game, the President today is going with a positive attitude, where he will ask more questions from Olmert on his offer, and he will tell him that the Palestinians will respond later,” Khazmo wrote.
Khazmo was particularly concerned that Abbas avoid what he described as “Olmert’s media stunts.”
Even after the September 16 meeting failed to culminate in a peace deal, Rice said that she continued to push hard for talks, “worried that there might never be another chance like this one.”
Her memoirs, however, are silent on the revelation in the Palestine Papers that the Palestinians were concerned by her insistence on advancing the peace plan.


Rice had been heavily influenced by James Baker

September 19, 2011

She had been a board member of Chevron, a company that had been formerly known as the Arabian American Oil Company or ARAMCO. Like Baker, Rice was an eager tool of the Saudis, and the old foreign policy came back with a vengeance.
Chevron… the people who fund the news on PBS?

A Brief History Of
Major Oil Companies
In The Gulf Region
With Corporate Contact Information
Compiled By
Eric V. Thompson

Petroleum Archives Project
Arabian Peninsula & Gulf Studies Program
University of Virginia
Prepared with support from
The Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences


Amoco

1889: Standard Oil (Indiana) founded as subsidiary of Standard Oil Trust
1911: Standard Oil of Indiana founded with dissolution of Standard Oil
1910s: Standard Oil of Indiana purchases Pan American Petroleum
1914: Standard Oil of Indiana licenses “thermal cracking” process for producing gasoline to competing oil companies
1925: Standard Oil of Indiana acquires controlling interest in Pan American Petroleum and Transport Company
1932: Standard Oil of Indiana sells Venezuela operation to Jersey
1954: Pan American and Standard of Indiana merge, new company is called American Oil Company [Amoco]
1957: Begins joint venture with Iran independent of Iranian Oil Consortium
1958: Amoco signs agreement with Shah of Iran
1960s: Amoco Egypt Oil Company, Cairo, founded
1980s: Amoco Sharjah Oil Company, Sharjah, U.A.E., in partnership with UEA, produces natural gas and natural gas liquids in Sharjah
1990s: Amoco Oman Oil Company begins oil and gas exploration program

Corporate Offices:
Amoco Corporation,
200 East Randolph Drive,
Chicago, IL 60601-7125;
phone: (312) 856-6111;
e-mail: info@amoco.com.


Arco

1866: Atlantic Petroleum Storage Company founded
1870: Atlantic Petroleum Storage Company establishes Atlantic Refining Company (Atlantic)
1874: Atlantic sold to John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Trust
1905: Richfield Oil Corporation founded
1911: Standard Oil Trust dissolved under Sherman Antitrust Act, and Atlantic is spun off as independent company
1916: Sinclair Oil Corporation, founded by Harry F. Sinclair
1931: Richfield goes into receivership and Sinclair merges with Rio Grande Oil and Prairie Pipeline and Prairie Oil and Gas Companies
1936: Richfield Oil Corporation emerges from receivership
1952: Atlantic begins offshore Gulf Coast production
1963: Atlantic purchased the Hondo Oil & Gas Company
1966: Richfield Oil Corporation merges with Atlantic Refining Company, creating Atlantic Richfield Company [ARCO]
1968: ARCO partners with Exxon for Alaskan North Slope production
1969: ARCO acquires Sinclair Oil Corporation
1972: ARCO headquarters moves from New York City to Los Angeles
1977: ARCO acquires the Anaconda Company
1985: ARCO divests East Coast marketing and refining operations
1988: Tricentrol acquired by ARCO
1988: ARCO completes merger with Houston based Union Texas Petroleum Holding Inc.
1989: ARCO forms anew publicly held company, Lyondell Petrochemical
1993: ARCO’s U.S. oil and gas business restructured and divided into four business units—ARCO Permian, ARCO Western Energy, ARCO Long Beach, Inc., and Vastar Resources, Inc.
1994: Vastar Resources Inc. initiates a public offering of 17 million shares of its common stock
1996: ARCO signs Production Sharing Contract with Sonatrach, the Algerian state oil company, to undertake major Enhanced Oil Recovery project in Algeria’s second largest oil field, Rhourde El Baguel
1997: ARCO and Russia’s largest oil company, LUKOIL, sign joint venture agreement to invest in oil and gas projects in Russia and other countries
1998: ARCO subsidiary (Western Midway Co.) and a unit of Mobil Corporation reaches agreement to exchange oil and gas properties in California’s San Joaquin Valley and the Gulf of Mexico; The California properties owned by Western Midway go to Mobil, while Mobil oil and gas properties in the Gulf go to Western Midway. Upon completion of the exchange, Western Midway will be sold to Vastar Resources Inc. (82.2% owned by ARCO)
1998: ARCO sells majority interest in ARCO Chemical Company and divests its coal assets in the U.S.

Corporate Offices:
Arco Corporate Headquarters
515 South Flower Street
Los Angeles, CA 90071
(213) 486-3511


Ashland Oil

1924: Ashland Refining Company of Ashland, Ky., founded as a refining arm of Swiss Oil Company of Lexington
1930: Ashland Purchases Tri-State Refining
1931: Acquires Cumberland Pipeline Company’s eastern Kentucky pipeline network
1936: Ashland Refining merges with Swiss Oil to form Ashland Oil & Refining Company
1946: Ashland Oil & Refining Company products first sold under the brand name “Ashland”
1948: Ashland and Allied Oil merge
1949: Ashland and Aetna Oil merge, Ashland acquires Kentucky retail marketing operation Freedom-Valvoline, including Valvoline Motor Oil brand and also acquires Southern Pipe Line Company
1950: Frontier Oil Refining of Buffalo, N.Y., and National Refining of Cleveland, Ohio, join Ashland
1956: Acquisition of R. J. Brown Company of St. Louis.
1963: Ashland acquires United Oil
1966: Ashland acquires Warren Brothers construction company
1967: Ashland purchases ADM Chemical Group and forms Ashland
1969: Ashland forms Ashland Petroleum operating division and Arch Mineral
1970: Ashland changes name to Ashland Oil, Inc.
1970: Ashland acquires Northwestern Refining of St. Paul, Minn. and the SuperAmerica retail marketing chain
1971: Exploration and production activities are consolidated into Ashland Exploration
1975: Construction division is formed, and Ashland Coal is created
1991: Ashland acquires The Permian Corporation and merges with Scurlock Oil Company
1992: Ashland Chemical acquires most of Unocal’s chemical distribution business, establishing the IC&S Division
1994: Ashland’s Valvoline acquires Zerex
1995: Ashland changes company’s name to Ashland Inc.
1997: Ashland signs agreements with Marathon to combine the refining, marketing and transportation assets of the companies. Ashland acquires 38 percent of Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC

Corporate Offices:
Ashland Inc. Headquarters
1000 Ashland Drive
Russell, KY 41169
(606) 329-3333


Chevron

1879: Pacific Coast Oil Company established
1900: Pacific Coast Oil purchased by Standard Oil, but remains separate operation
1906: Pacific Coast Oil consolidated with other Western US operations of Standard Oil into Standard Oil Company (California)
1911: Dissolution of Standard Oil Trust makes Standard Oil of California (Socal) independent
1926: Socal merges with Pacific Oil Company
1929: Socal establishes Bahrain Petroleum Company to hold Bahrain concession
1932: Bahrain Petroleum strikes oil in Bahrain
1933: Socal wins Saudi Arabia concession; Socal establishes California-Arabia Standard Oil Company, Casoc, to hold concession for Saudi Arabia
1933: Socal discoveries oil in Saudi Arabia
1936: Texaco joins with Standard Oil of California (later Chevron), to found the Arab-American Oil Company [Aramco]
1936: Texaco purchases half interest in Bahrain Petroleum and California-Arabian Standard Oil Company (Calarabian) from Socal
1936: California-Texas company, Caltex, founded as a joint venture between Socal and Texaco as outlet for future oil production in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1961: Socal buys Standard of Kentucky
1974: Bahraini government acquires 60% interest in BAPCO
1980: Bahraini government acquires remaining interest in BAPCO
1984: Socal buys Gulf Corporation and after restructuring changes name to Chevron Corporation
1993: Chevron undertakes a joint venture with the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan forming a new company named Tengizchevroil
1993: Pennzoil Company assimilates Chevron

Corporate Offices:
Chevron Corporation
575 Market Street
San Francisco, CA 94105-2856
415-894-7700


Conoco

1875: Continental Oil and Transportation Company founded
1885: Continental Oil and Transportation Company reincorporated as Continental within the Standard Oil trust
1913: Continental Oil reincorporated after breakup of Standard Oil Trust
1917: Marland Oil Company founded
1929: Continental Oil company merged with portions of Rocky Mountain (a former component of Standard oil) and Marland
Mid-1950s: Continental joins partnership with Marathon and Amerada, called Oasis Group
1981: Conoco becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of by E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company
1981: Conoco reorganized as Continental Group

Corporate Offices: Conoco Center
600 North Dairy Ashford
Houston, TX 77079
P.O. Box 2197
Houston, TX
ZIP Code 77252
Phone: (281) 293-1000
Telex: 775347
Fax: (281) 293-1440


Exxon

1882: Standard Oil of New Jersey formed by Standard Oil Trust
1888: Standard Oil of New Jersey establishes Anglo-American Oil Co. (predecessor of Esso Petroleum Co.) to market oil in the British Isles
1899: Standard Oil of New Jersey becomes a holding company for Standard Oil Interests, a subsidiary of Standard Oil
1898: Standard Oil of New Jersey gains control of Imperial Oil Limited of Canada
1928: Standard Oil of New Jersey acquires interest in Turkish (now Iraq) Petroleum Co.
1911: Standard Oil of New Jersey [Jersey] becomes independent with dissolution of Standard Oil Trust
1911: Humble Oil Company formed
1919: Jersey acquires majority ownership of Humble Oil
1930: Anglo-American acquired by Jersey
1933: Socony-Vacuum and Standard of New Jersey merge their Far East facilities and interests into a 50-50 venture called Standard-Vacuum Oil Co., or Stanvac
1947: Jersey affiliate, Imperial, strikes oil in Canada
1947: Anglo-Iranian, Jersey and Socony sign 20-year contract with Iran
1948: Jersey (30%) and Socony-Vacuum (10%) join Socal (30%) and Texaco (30%) in Aramco venture
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1959: Jersey buys remainder of Humble Oil
1959: Jersey strikes oil in Libya
1960: Jersey begins to market gasoline under the brand name Esso
1960: Jersey purchases Monterey Oil
1961: Jersey buys Honolulu Oil
1962: Assets of Stanvac split between Jersey and Socony Mobil
1972: Jersey changes name to Exxon
1972: Iraq nationalizes Iraq Petroleum Company, of which Exxon is 12% owner
1972: Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait and Qatar acquire 25% interest in Exxon’s production operations (in country), with right to increase stake to 51% by 1982
1980: Exxon buys Colony Oil Shale Project
1981: Exxon sells Esso Standard Libya to Libyan government
1982: Exxon ends Colony Oil Shale Project
1985: Exxon acquires 48% of Hunt Oil Company’s production sharing agreement in North Yemen
1998: Exxon and Mobil announce plans for merger

Corporate Offices:
5959 Las Colinas Blvd.
Irving, TX 75039-2298
Phone: 972-444-1000
Fax: 972-444-1882


Getty

1928: Pacific Western Oil Corporation incorporated as a holding company for Edward L. Doherty and family which subsequently came under the control of J. Paul Getty
1930s: Rocky Mountain division of Pacific Western, a Getty subsidiary, begins oil exploration in Saudi Arabia
1933: Pacific Western wins Saudi Arabia concession
1949: Getty’s Western Pacific Oil Corporation signs concession for Saudi half of the Neutral Zone with Saudi government
1956: All of J. Paul Getty’s oil holdings organized under Getty Oil
1953: Getty acquires Tidewater Oil
1984: Texaco acquires Getty


Gulf Oil

1901: Guffey Oil founded
1901: Gulf Refining Company founded
1907: William Mellon reorganizes Guffey Oil and Gulf Refining under name of Gulf Oil Corporation
1922: Gulf Oil Corporation forms Eastern Gulf Oil Company
1928: Gulf joins Turkish Petroleum Company
1929: Gulf buys Paragon Refining Company
1934: Gulf sells its share of Iraq Petroleum Company to Socal
1934: Anglo-Iranian and Gulf Oil Corporation establish Kuwait Oil Company as a 50-50 joint venture to compete for Kuwait concession (which they obtain); Subsequent agreement establishes British control of KOC
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1955: Acquires Warren Petroleum
1971: Gulf purchases 10% in Syncrude Canada Limited
1984: Chevron buys Gulf


Marathon

1887: Ohio Oil Company founded
1889: Ohio Oil Company purchased by J.D. Rockefeller subsequently consolidated into the Standard Oil Trust
1905: Marathon headquarters moved to Findlay, Ohio
1911: Standard Oil Company of Ohio [Sohio] separated from Rockefeller’s “Standard Trust”
Mid-1950s: Sohio joins partnership with Continental and Amerada, called Oasis Group
1962: Ohio Oil Company renamed the Marathon Oil Company
1962: Marathon buys Plymouth Oil
1982: Marathon becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, which has since become USX Corporation
1991: USX issues separate shares of common stock to reflect the performance of its two major businesses (steel and oil) and reinstates Marathon’s symbol (MRO) on major stock exchanges
1990: Marathon Oil Company headquarters moved to Houston
1997: Ashland signs agreements with Marathon to combine the refining, marketing and transportation assets of the companies; Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC formed Ashland acquires 38 percent of Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC

Corporate Offices:
Marathon Oil Company
539 South Main Street
Findlay, Ohio 45840


Mesa Petroleum

1956: After resigning as a geologist with Phillips Petroleum Co., T. Boone Pickens forms development and production company called Petroleum Exploration
1959: Altair Oil and Gas is established to conduct oil and gas exploration in Canada
1964: Petroleum Exploration, Inc., and Altair merge to form Mesa Petroleum Co.
1967: Mesa Petroleum Co. shares began trading on the American Stock Exchange
1969: In hostile takeover, Pickens merges larger Hugoton into Mesa
1979: Mesa sells holdings in Canada and the North Sea to reduce debt and buy additional Hugoton reserves; Mesa also creates the Mesa Royalty Trust
1983: Mesa forms Gulf Investors Group (GIG)
1984: Mesa repurchases nearly 90 percent of the GIG units in a $500 million public tender offer
1985: The Mesa Petroleum Company changes its name to the Mesa Limited Partnership
1986: Mesa purchases Pioneer Corporation
1988: MESA partnership acquires gas reserves from Tenneco Inc.
1991: Mesa Limited Partnership changes name to MESA Inc.

Corporate Offices:
712 Main St.
Houston, TX 77002
Phone: 713-216-6369
Fax: 713-216-5476


Mobil

1866: The Vacuum Oil Co. incorporated
1879: Standard Oil Co., headed by John D. Rockefeller, purchases a three-quarter interest in Vacuum
1870: Rockefeller and four partners organize Standard Oil Company in Ohio
1882: Rockefeller organizes his various oil holdings into the Standard Oil Trust, with headquarters in New York
1882: Standard Oil of New York formed
1911: Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony) founded with dissolution of Standard Oil
1918: Socony purchases a 45% interest in Magnolia Petroleum Co.
1926: Socony purchases the properties of General Petroleum Corp. of California
1929: Vacuum acquires the Lubrite Refining Co., a refining and marketing company based in St. Louis
1930: Socony acquires White Eagle Oil & Refining Co.
1930: Vacuum acquires Wadhams Oil Corp., and the White Star Refining Co.
1931: Socony acquires all the assets of Vacuum Oil Co. and changes its name to Socony-Vacuum Corp.
1933: Socony-Vacuum and Standard of New Jersey merge their Far East facilities and interests into a 50-50 venture called Standard-Vacuum Oil Co., or Stanvac
1934: Socony-Vacuum Corp. changes its name to Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., Inc.
1947: Anglo-Iranian, Jersey and Socony sign 20-year contract with Iran
1948: Jersey (30%) and Socony-Vacuum (10%) join Socal (30%) and Texaco (30%) in Aramco venture
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texaco and Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1955: Socony-Vacuum changes name to Socony Mobil Oil Company
1959: Magnolia Petroleum and General Petroleum merged with other domestic subsidiaries into Socony Mobil Oil Company; Two major operating divisions created within the company: Mobil Oil Co. for the U.S. and Canada, and Mobil International Oil Co. for the rest of the world (except the areas in which Stanvac had interests)
1960: Mobil Chemical Co. formed
1960: Mobil Petroleum Co. Inc. formed to oversee Socony Mobil’s 50% interest in Stanvac
1962: Assets of Stanvac split between Jersey and Socony Mobil
1966: Socony Mobil Oil Co. changes name to Mobil Oil Corporation. Mobil Oil Co. becomes the North American Division; Mobil International becomes the International Division, with coordinating responsibility for Mobil Petroleum Co. Inc.
1971: Mobil enters joint venture with Iranian Oil Company
1972: Mobil’s 11.875% stake in Iraq Petroleum Company is nationalized
1975: Mobil increases its share of Aramco from 10% to 15%
1976: Mobil completes acquisition of Marcor, the holding company for Montgomery Ward Department Stores
1976: Mobil Corporation formed as holding company
1979: Mobil sells 51% of its Turkish refinery to Turkish Petroleum
1984: Mobil acquires 100% of Superior Oil
1985: Yanbu Petrochemical Company (YANPET), a joint venture petrochemicals complex at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia plant begins operation; Mobil and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) are 50-50 partners in YANPET
1996: The Qatargas project, in which Mobil has a 10% interest, comes on line producing first LNG from Qatar
1996: Mobil commissions two new plants in Yemen and Syria
1997: Second Qatargas liquefaction train completed
1998: Exxon and Mobil announce plans for merger

Corporate Offices:
3225 Gallows Rd.
Fairfax, VA 22037-0001
Phone: 703-846-3000
Fax: 703-846-4669


Occidental Petroleum

1910: Cities Service Company formed
1920: Occidental Petroleum founded
1953: Cities Service Company obtains Dhofar province concession in Oman
1956: Armand Hammer buys Occidental Petroleum
1965: Cities Service Company begins marketing products under the brand name “CITGO”
1965: Occidental wins oil concession in Libya
1983: Occidental acquires Cities Service Company
1983: Occidental reorganized Cities’ assets and sells newly formed “CITGO Petroleum Corporation” to Southland Corporation
1980s: Libya nationalizes 51% of Occidental’s operation in Libya
1986: Occidental acquired the Midcon Corporation,
1994: Occidental Petroleum Corp. completes acquisition of Placid Oil Co., which was founded in 1936 by H.L. Hunt
1995: Occidental purchases 19% stake in Clark USA
1998: Occidental and Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Dutch oil group complete a $1bn global asset swap
1998: Occidental sells Occidental Netherlands Inc. unit to TransCanada Pipelines Ltd.

Corporate Offices:
Corporate Headquarters
Occidental Petroleum Corporation
10889 Wilshire Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90024-4201
(310) 208-8800


Pennzoil

1889: South Penn Oil Company organized as a unit of Standard Oil Company
1916: Name “Pennzoil” trademarked by Pennsylvania Refining Company, a predecessor to Pennzoil
1954: Bill Liedtke, John Overby, and George Bush form Zapata Offshore Oil Company
1963: Pennzoil Company is formed through consolidation of South Penn Oil Company, STETCO Petroleum Corporation and Zapata Offshore Oil Company
1965: Pennzoil Company acquires United Gas Corporation
1993: Pennzoil Company assimilates Chevron
1994: Pennzoil Company signs oil development deal with Qatar
1995: Pennzoil Company agrees to concession agreement with Egypt for Gulf of Suez
1998: Pennzoil-Quaker State Company was formed with merger of Pennzoil and Quaker State
1998: Simultaneous with the Pennzoil-Quaker State merger, the Pennzoil Company’s marketing, manufacturing and fast oil change businesses (Pennzoil Products Group) is spun off and renamed the PennzEnergy Company

Corporate Offices:
Pennzoil
700 Milam
Houston, TX 77002
(713) 546-4000


Phillips Petroleum Company

1905: Phillips brothers begin oil exploration
1917: Phillips Petroleum Company founded by Frank Phillips
1922: Phillips forms the predecessor to what today is GPM Gas Corp
1925: Research and Development Group formed
1969: Phillips’ Kenai LNG Plant begins operation
1985: Phillips successfully fends off hostile take-over attempts
1992: GPM Gas Corporation formed

Corporate Offices:
411 S. Keeler Ave.
Bartlesville, OK 74004
Phone: 918-661-6600
Fax: 918-661-6279


Shell

1833: Marcus Samuel starts import export business in London
1890: Royal Dutch Company launched
1892: Marcus commissions the first special oil tanker and delivers 4,000 tons of Russian kerosene to Singapore and Bangkok
1897: Samuel’s company begins to operate under the name Shell Transport and Trading Company, Limited
1903: Shell and Dutch company N.V. Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij tot Explotatie van Petroleum-bronnen in Nederlandsch-Indië form the Asiatic Petroleum Company
1903: Royal Dutch and Shell group begins joint marketing campaign under name “British Dutch”
1906-1914: British Dutch Group acquires producing interests in: Romania (1906), Russia (1910), Egypt (1911), Venezuela (1913) and Trinidad (1914)
1907: Royal Dutch/Shell partnership is extended worldwide, with the creation of the Royal Dutch / Shell Group of Companies
1912: Trading in the US starts after the acquisition of the American Gasoline Company, an American marketing company
1912: Turkish Petroleum Company founded with 50% ownership by Turkish National Bank, 25% Deutsche Bank, 25% Royal Dutch/Shell
1915: Formation of the Shell Company in California
1918: Royal Dutch/Shell buys Mexican Eagle
1922: Shell Union Oil Corporation [later Shell Oil Company] formed to consolidate Shell interests in the US with those of the Union Oil Company of Delaware
1937: Shell, Total, and Partex form the consortium Petroleum Development (Oman and Dhofar) later, Petroleum Development Oman
1945-55: Exploratory drilling in Tunisia, Algeria, Nigeria, Trinidad and offshore in British Borneo; Production from the Iraq Petroleum Company increases dramatically
1949: Royal Dutch shortens its corporate title to “Shell”
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1956: Shell discovers oil in the Sahara
1959: Joint Shell/Esso exploration company called N.V. Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) discovers gas fields in Groningen in the Netherlands
1974: Omani government claims 25% interest Petroleum Development Oman
1975: Omani government raises its interest in Petroleum Development Oman to 60%
1979: Shell acquires Belridge Oil
1984: Shell buys minority interest (30%) in Shell Oil US
Mid-1980s: Royal Dutch/Shell buys remaining 31% of Shell Oil U.S.A. (the remainder that it did not yet own)
1998: Shell Oil Co., Texaco Inc. and Saudi Aramco initiate joint venture combining their eastern U.S. refining and marketing assets under the name Motiva Enterprises LLC, paralleling a joint venture launched by Shell and Texaco under the name Equilon Enterprises LLC for their Midwest, Southwest and West Coast downstream assets; Shell to own 35% of Houston-based Motiva, while Texaco and Aramco will each own 32.5%
1998: Occidental and Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Dutch oil group complete a $1bn global asset swap

Corporate Offices:
Shell Oil
One Shell Plaza
Houston, TX 77002
Phone: 713-241-6161
Fax: 713-241-4044
Royal Dutch/ Shell Group
2596 HR The Hague, The Netherlands
Phone: +31-70-377-3395
Fax: +31-70-377-4848


Sun Company Inc.

1886: Robert Pew founds Sun Oil Company
1901: New Jersey Oil and Gas incorporated
1968: Sun buys Sunray (DX)
1971: Sun Oil Company reorganized and renamed Sun Company Incorporated

Corporate Offices:
Ten Penn Center 1801 Market Street
Philadelphia Pa 191031699
Telephone: 215-977-3000


Texaco

1897: Joe Cullinan founds Texas Fuel Company
1903: Joe Cullinan and Arnold Schlaet found The Texas Oil Company in Beaumont, Texas
1906: Texas Oil Company registers the trademark name, “Texaco”
1936: Texas Oil Company purchases half interest in Bahrain Petroleum and California-Arabian Standard Oil Company (Calarabian) from Socal
1936: Texas Oil Company joins with Standard Oil of California (later Chevron), to found the Arab-American Oil Company [Aramco]
1936: California-Texas company, Caltex, founded as a joint venture between Socal and Texas Oil Company as outlet for future oil production in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1956: Texas Oil Company acquires Regent Oil, a British company
1959: Texas Oil Company purchases the Paragon group of companies
1959: Texas Oil Company adopts the name Texaco for all of its businesses
1962: Texaco acquires White Fuel Corporation
1964: Purchases Superior Oil Company Venezuela
1984: Texaco acquires Getty Oil Company
1988: Texaco Forms Star Enterprise, a 50/50 joint venture with Saudi Refining Inc., to refine, distribute and market Texaco-branded products in the Eastern U.S.
1995: Texaco and Norsk Hydro formed a joint venture, Hydro Texaco, to market petroleum products throughout Scandinavia
1998: Texaco acquires Monterey Resources, a California based independent oil and gas producer
1998: Texaco and Shell Oil form downstream alliance in the Western U.S.
1998: Shell Oil Co., Texaco Inc. and Saudi Aramco initiate joint venture combining their eastern U.S. refining and marketing assets under the name Motiva Enterprises LLC, paralleling a joint venture launched by Shell and Texaco under the name Equilon Enterprises LLC for their Midwest, Southwest and West Coast downstream assets; Shell to own 35% of Houston-based Motiva, while Texaco and Aramco will each own 32.5%

Corporate Offices:
Texaco Inc.
2000 Westchester Ave.
White Plains, NY 10650
(9140 253-4000


Union Oil (Unocal)

1890: Union Oil formed in California by merger of Hardison & Stewart Oil Company, the Sespe Oil Company, and the Torrey Canyon Oil Company
1917: Union purchases Pinal-Dome Oil Company
1922: Shell buys 25% of Union Oil of California
1922: Shell Union Oil Corporation formed to consolidate Shell interests in the US with those of the Union Oil Company of Delaware
1965: Union acquires Pure Oil
1983: Union Oil changes name to Unocal
1992: Ashland Chemical acquires most of Unocal’s chemical distribution business, establishing the IC&S Division

Corporate Offices:
2141 Rosecrans Ave., Ste. 4000
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone: 310-726-7600
Fax: 310-726-7817


British Petroleum (Anglo-Persian Oil)

1886: Burmah Oil founded in Scotland
1901: Shah of Iran signs concession agreement with William D’arcy
1904: Burmah Oil signs agreement to supply oil to British Admiralty
1905: Burmah Oil and D’arcy oil merged into Concession Syndicate
1908: Oil struck in commercial quantities in Iran
1909: Anglo- Persian Oil formed and Burmah Oil buys majority (97%) of shares in initial public offering
1914: British government becomes majority stockholder in Anglo- Persian Oil
1918: Anglo- Persian Oil purchases British Petroleum from British Government, which in turn had seized the company form Deutsche Bank during W.W.I.
1932: Shah cancels Anglo-Persian concession
1933: Anglo-Persian wins back Iran concession
1934: Anglo-Iranian and Gulf Oil Corporation establish Kuwait Oil Company as a 50-50 joint venture to compete for Kuwait concession (which they obtain); Subsequent agreement establishes British control of KOC
1935: Anglo-Persian renamed Anglo-Iranian Oil Company Ltd.
1947: Anglo-Iranian, Jersey and Socony sign 20-year contract with Iran
1951: Mossadegh nationalizes Anglo-Iranian assets in Iran and founds National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) to administer nationalized assets
1954: Anglo-Iranian re-named British Petroleum, previously the name of one of its subsidiaries
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1962: British Petroleum begins commercial development in Abu Dhabi
1966: British Petroleum begins commercial development in Libya
1969: British Petroleum signs agreement with the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, which became effective in January 1970; According to the agreement Standard takes over BP’s leases in Alaska; In return, BP acquires 25% of Standard’s equity, a stake that would rise to a majority holding in 1978
1970: BP sells 33% of El Bunduq oilfield to a Japanese consortium in exchange for access to Japanese markets
1972: BP sells 33% of Abu Dhabi Main Areas Ltd. to Japanese oil company
Mid-1980s: BP buys 53% of Sohio, Sohio becomes BP’s American arm, eventually buying all of the outstanding stock
1987: British government sells of its stock in BP
1987: British Petroleum acquires remaining stock of Sohio as well as British company Britoil
1987: Sohio merged with other BP interests to form BP America
1988: Kuwait Investment Office holding of BP stock reaches 21.6%
1989: British government forces reduction in KIO holding to 9.9% of BP stock
1998: BP announces merger with Amoco, new company will operate under the name BP Amoco p.l.c.

Corporate Offices:
Britannic House, One Finsbury Circus
London EC2M 7BA, UK
Phone: +44-171-496-4000
Fax: +44-171-496-4630


Elf Aquitaine

1941: Societe Nationale des Petroles d’Aquitaine (SNPA) incorporated at the initiative of the French government
1966: French government merges gas and oil interests into Enterprise de Recherches et d’Activities Petrolieres (ERAP), giving ERAP majority ownership of SNPA
1974: ERAP begins onshore and offshore exploration in Iran
1976: ERAP is reorganized and increases share of SNPA ownership to 70%
1976: ERAP changes name to Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine, known as Elf Aquitaine Group

Corporate Offices:
Elf Aquitaine, Inc.
444 Madison Avenue – 20th floor
New York – NY 10022
USA
Tel: (1) 212 922 30 04
Fax: (1) 212 922 30 74


Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI)

1953: Enrico Mattei founds Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi [ENI] as a conglomeration of 36 subsidiaries including AGIP, with government sanction
1956: Signs 50-50 oil cooperation deal with National Iranian Oil Company
1970-75: Founds Agip (Qatar) Ltd,
1980s: Libya gains control of 50% of ENI Libya
1981: Enoxy, a joint ENI Occidental petrochemical and mining venture founded
1985: ENI wins contract to construct pipeline in Iraq
1986: ENI wins portion of a pipeline contact for Yemen
1992: ENI transformed into joint stock company traded on Italian and NYSE

Corporate Offices:
Piazzale Enrico Mattei 1
00144 Rome, Italy
Phone: +39-0-6-59-822-624
Fax: +39-0-6-59-002-141


Iraq Petroleum Company

1912: Turkish Petroleum Company founded with 50% ownership by Turkish National Bank, 25% Deutsche Bank, 25% Royal Dutch/Shell
1914: Turkish Petroleum Company reorganized, with Anglo-Persian holding 50%, Deutsche Bank and Shell each holding 25%
1914: Ottoman Grand Vizier promises Mesopotamian concession to Turkish Petroleum Company, but final concession agreement is not signed
1922: CFP joins Turkish Petroleum Company
1925: Turkish Petroleum Company gains oil concession in Iraq
1928: Gulf joins Turkish Petroleum Company
1928: Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Persian, CFP, Exxon, Mobil, Atlantic Richfield, Gulf Oil Corporation, Standard Oil of Indiana [Amoco], and Participations and Explorations Corp., establish a joint venture called the Near East Development Company; The Near East Development Company signs “Red Lines Agreement” binding participating companies to cooperate with Turkish Petroleum Company in any ventures in Turkey, the Levant, Iraq and Arabian Peninsula (Atlantic, Gulf, and Standard eventually sell their shares to other participants)
1929: Turkish Petroleum changes name to Iraq Petroleum Company
1932: Mosul Petroleum Company formed to hold northern portion of IPC’s Iraq concession
1938: Basrah Petroleum Company formed to hold southern portion of IPC’s Iraq concession
1939: IPC establishes Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company Ltd. (ADPC) to hold Abu Dhabi concession
1939: British government seizes IPC shares held by CFP
1966: Iraq revokes portions of IPC concession and nationalizes these concessions
1972: Iraq nationalizes remaining IPC concessions
1973: Iraq nationalizes assets of foreign assets in Basrah Petroleum Company


National Iranian Oil Company

1951: Iran nationalizes National Iranian Oil Company
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Jersey, Socony, Texaco and Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, Iricon Agency Ltd., Richfield Oil Corp., Signal Oil and Gas, Aminoil, Sohio, Getty, Atlantic Oil, Tidewater Oil, San Jacinto Petroleum Corp., and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP). IOP then negotiates agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1973: Oil Services Company of Iran (Osco) formed by NIOC to take over operations of IOP
1957: National Iranian Oil Company signs deal with ENI for oil production
1971: Mobil enters joint venture with National Iranian Oil Company
1990: National Iranian Oil Company signs agreement to import about 200,000 barrels a day of gas oil and kerosene from Bahrain, Qatar and Abu Dhabi refineries ending embargoes established during the Iran-Iraq war


Kuwait National Petroleum Company

1934: Anglo-Iranian and Gulf Oil Corporation establish Kuwait Oil Company as a 50-50 joint venture to compete for Kuwait concession (which they obtain); Subsequent agreement establishes British control of KOC
1934: Sheikh Ahmed grants 75-year concession to KOC
1951: KOC oil concession extended for additional 17 years
1960: Kuwait National Petroleum Company established as a shareholder company owned by the government and the private sector
1968: KNPC commissions Shuaiba Refinery, the world’s first all hydrogen refinery
1974: Kuwaiti government acquires 60 ownership of KOC
1975: KNPC becomes a fully state-owned company
1980: Kuwait Petroleum Corporation created, KNPC becomes fully owned by KPC; KNPC takes charge of the three oil refineries; Mina Al-Ahmadi, Mina Abdulla and Shuaiba, in addition to the LPG plant in Mina Al-Ahmadi
1981: Kuwait Oil Company purchases the Santa Fe International Corp., of California

Corporate Offices:
Head Office
P.O. Box 70 Safat
13001 Safat – Kuwait
Telephone:
Buildings 1 & 2: (+965) 2420121/2425553
Emad Center: (+965) 2436333
Behbehani Building: (+965) 2449401
Fax: (+965) 2433839


Saudi Aramco

1933: King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud signs agreement authorizing Standard Oil of California (Socal) to explore for oil in what is now the Eastern Province of the Kingdom
1933: Saudi government signed a concession agreement with the Standard Oil Company of California, predecessor of today’s Chevron
1938: Commercial oil production begins in Saudi Arabia
1944: Calarabian a joint venture of Socal and Texaco changes name to Arabian –American Oil Company [Aramco]
1948: Jersey and Socony-Vacuum join Socal and Texaco in Aramco venture
1949: Saudi Arabia builds Tapline through northern Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon to the Mediterranean
1973: Saudi Arabian Government begins purchasing Aramco’s assets from its shareholders, Socal (later Chevron), Texaco, Exxon and Socony-Vacuum (Mobil)
1975: Aramco initiates work to design, build and operate twin industrial cities at Jubail on the Gulf and Yanbu on the Red Sea
1980: Saudi Government acquires 100 percent of Aramco’s shares, although Aramco partners continue to operate and manage Saudi Arabia’s oil fields
1985: Yanbu Petrochemical Company (YANPET), a joint venture petrochemicals complex at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia plant begins operation; Mobil and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) are 50-50 partners in YANPET
1988: Royal decree establishes the Saudi Arabian Oil Company [Saudi Aramco] to take over the management and operations of Saudi Arabia’s oil and gas fields from Aramco
1988: Saudi Aramco forms a joint venture with Texaco called Star Enterprise; Under the agreement, a Saudi Aramco subsidiary acquires a 50 percent share in Star’s three refineries in the United States
1991: Saudi Aramco acquires a 35 percent interest in SangYong Oil Refining Company, South Korea’s third-largest refiner and leading lubricant manufacturer,
1993: Royal decree merges all of the Kingdom’s state-owned refining, product-distribution and marketing operations, as well as the Government’s half-interest in three joint-venture refineries into Saudi Aramco
1994: Saudi Aramco enters joint venture with the Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) purchasing a 40-percent stake in Petron Corp
1996: Saudi Aramco acquires a 50 percent interest in Motor Oil Hellas and Avin Oil, the refining and distribution affiliates of Greece’s Vardinoyannis Group
1998: Shell Oil Co., Texaco Inc. and Saudi Aramco initiate joint venture combining their eastern U.S. refining and marketing assets under the name Motiva Enterprises LLC, paralleling a joint venture launched by Shell and Texaco under the name Equilon Enterprises LLC for their Midwest, Southwest and West Coast downstream assets; Shell to own 35% of Houston-based Motiva, while Texaco and Aramco will each own 32.5%

Corporate Offices:
PO Box 5000
Dhahran 31311
Saudi Arabia
Phone: +966-3-875-4915
Fax: +966-3-873-8490


Total Oil (CFP)

1924: Foundation of the French Compagnie Francaise Des Petroles (CFP), which assumes French shares of Turkish Petroleum Company
1927: Discovery of the first oil field near Kirkuk in Iraq
1954/5: Creation and registration of the trademark TOTAL, and foundation of the first companies marketing TOTAL products
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1956: Discovery of the Hassi-Messaoud oil field and Hassi R’Mel gas field, in the Algerian Sahara
1960: CFP absorbs the OFP (Omnium Francais Des Petroles) group
1970: French Petroleum Company of Canada founded. The company is renamed Total Petroleum (North America) later that year
1973: First listing of CFP shares on the London Stock Exchange
1978: CFP signs an agreement with Abu Dhabi covering development of the Upper Zakum field and production of butane and propane as well as the condensates associated with the oil produced by ADPC (GASCO)
1980: TOTAL acquires Vickers Petroleum Corp., expanding TOTAL’s presence in the United States
1985: CFP changes company name from CFP to TOTAL CFP
1985: TOTAL CFP acquires all United States hydrocarbon assets of Lear Petroleum Partners
1987: TOTAL CFP acquires hydrocarbon assets held by TIPCO in the United States as well as those of Francarep Italia, and divests of all refining assets and most of the Group’s marketing interests in Italy
1988: TOTAL CFP acquires CSX OIL & GAS in the United States
1991: TOTAL CFP changes company name to TOTAL
1991: Reduction of the French government’s direct share holding in TOTAL from 31.7% to 5.4%
1995: TOTAL signs agreements for establishing the Yemen gas liquefaction project and a development contract for the Iranian offshore fields Sirri A and E
1996: Divestment by the French State of a further 4% of TOTAL’s capital, reducing the government’s stake to 0.97%; TOTAL signs a production-sharing agreement for development of Algeria’s Tin Fouyé Tabankort field
1998: TOTAL announces details of its development plans for Iran’s giant South Pars gas field in coordination with the National Iranian Oil Co.

Corporate Offices:
TOTAL
24, Cours Michelet
92069 Paris La Défense Cedex
France
phone : 33 (0)1 41 35 40 00 (Switchboard)
fax : 33 (0)1 41 35 28 27


American Independent Oil Company (AMINOIL)

1947: Consortium of Phillips, Ashland, Signal Oil and Gas, J.S. Abercrombie, Sunray Mid-Continent Oil Co., Globe Oil and Refining Co., and Pauley Petroleum Inc formed to bid on Neutral Zone concession; Consortium is named American Independent Oil Company [Aminoil]
1948: Aminoil wins Neutral Zone concession from Kuwait
1970: Aminoil acquired by R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.


Eastern and General Syndicate

1919: Major Frank Holmes establishes Eastern and General Syndicate
1925: Eastern and General Syndicate wins al-Hasa Concession
1925: Eastern and General Syndicate awarded oil concession in Bahrain


Standard Oil Company

1870: John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler found Standard Oil
1882: Rockefeller organizes his various oil holdings into the Standard Oil Trust, with headquarters in New York
1886: Standard Oil founds Natural Gas Trust
1901: Standard establishes regional affiliate, Republic Oil
1907: Standard establishes Standard Oil of California
1911: Standard dissolved under court order, creating Standard Oil of New Jersey (Exxon), Standard Oil of New York (Mobil), Standard Oil [California] (Chevron), Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio, arm of BP), Standard Oil of Indiana (Amoco), Continental Oil (Conoco), Atlantic (ARCO)


Oooh Juicy! Condi Rice: Cheney Attacked My Integrity

September 2, 2011

Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has lashed out at Dick Cheney over his newly published memoir, calling an assertion by the former vice president an “attack on my integrity.” Cheney writes in his book “In My Time” that Rice misled President George W. Bush about negotiations with North Korea over its nuclear program. “I kept the president fully and completely informed about every in and out of the negotiations with the North Koreans,” Rice said in an interview with Reuters on Wednesday. Read more at newsmax.com

Rice also disputed a passage in Cheney’s memoir in which he says the secretary of state “tearfully admitted” that the Bush administration should not have apologized for a claim in Bush’s 2003 State of the Union address on Iraq’s supposed search for uranium. She says she wasn’t crying, but she admits it was a mistake to apologize. <—there is the key point! Cheney TOLD Condi that it would be a mistake to apologize for NO WMDS. He was right… cuz there were WMDS. Even Noam Chomsky admits it. Of course Saddam had WMDS! The West gave it to him. Did you think Bush wouldn’t know what his Dad and probably the CIA had given Saddam?


Gaddafi had an infatuation for Condi Rice?

August 26, 2011
Libya’s Qaddafi Gave Condi Rice $212,000 In Gifts, Including A Diamond Ring. That would explain Condoleezza Rice’s poor treatment of Israel. The whole time I thought it was because she was Bibi’s neighbor and family friend in Colorado.Women! Looks like old Condi returned the favor! …In Gaddafi’s compound, the rebels found albums of the former Sec of State, Condoleezza Rice.
“I support my darling black African woman,I admire and am very proud of the way she leans back and gives orders to the Arab leaders … Leezza, Leezza, Leezza. … I love her very much. I admire her and I’m proud of her because she’s a black woman of African origin.
So said Gaddafi according to the The Mad Jewess


Arlene Kushner: On Being Duped–Obama, Europe, And Israel

May 20, 2011
the Jews are sensitive (perhaps exceedingly so because of their history), so watch your language and how it might affect them.
But no! If we Jews are “sensitive,” it’s because we know the depths to which mankind is capable of sinking. And if we respond forcefully to talk by Palestinians of destroying us, it is because we know this is more than talk — but rather a reflection of an intention. Especially is this so as the Palestinian Arabs have an immediate historical link to the Nazis.

Too many elite Americans mistakenly compare the Palestinians’ struggle for statehood with African-Americans’ struggle for civil rights…In his Cairo speech, Obama…made the comparison. Condoleezza Rice was more explicit, equating her childhood miseries in the segregated South, while comparing Abbas to Martin Luther King, Jr. (emphasis added)

© Arlene Kushner. This material is produced by Arlene Kushner , functioning as an independent journalist. Permission is granted for it to be reproduced only with proper attribution.