Islamic Center of Cedar Rapids Promotes Global Islamic State

December 3, 2011
The original “mother mosque” in Cedar Rapids, at 1335 Ninth St. N.W., is now the Iowa Islamic Heritage and Cultural Center. The older mosque stands as a monument for peace.(Puff piece for Cedar Rapids – Desmoines Register) The original “mother mosque” in Cedar Rapids, at 1335 Ninth St. N.W., is now the Iowa Islamic Heritage and Cultural Center. The older mosque stands as a monument for peace. / KYLE MUNSON / REGISTER PHOTOS

The nation’s first full mosque to be built from the ground up opened here in 1934 and has come to be known as “the Mother Mosque of America.” A humbler basement mosque was built in 1929 in Ross, N.D., but that structure did not survive. In 1888, Hajj Abbas Habhab, Aossey’s maternal grandfather, was the first documented Muslim to settle in Iowa.

In 1907, Aossey’s father, Yahya Mohamad Aossey, arrived at age 16 from the Lebanon region of Syria. He initially worked as a farmhand for a German family and was given the name “William.”

Aossey graduated from Jefferson High School in Cedar Rapids and also received degrees from Cornell College in Mount Vernon and the University of Iowa.

He received a Fulbright Grant in 1966 for research in Vietnam.

His family history is flush with firsts — helping in 1948 to establish the first Muslim National Cemetery in Cedar Rapids, in addition to the original Mother Mosque and the newer Islamic Center that opened in 1971.

At the Islamic Center, Vicki Habhab at first mistook me for the plumber ready to fix a toilet. We had a good laugh, and then I found out that this is the second year she has helped lead a Montessori preschool in the center for kids ages 3 through 6. All nine students currently enrolled are Muslim, but Habhab and the staff are courting children of all faiths.

(h/t creeping sharia)

Islamic Center of Cedar Rapids Promotes Global Islamic State | FrontPage Magazine.

…Aossey…

If you need proof that radical Islam is spread across the country, look no further than Iowa’s Islamic Center of Cedar Rapids, whose extremism is plain for all to see online. One of its most notable attendees is Bill Aossey, a Muslim Youth Camps of America (MYCA) official and president of Midamar Corporation, a leading supplier of Halal foods that was given a loan guarantee of $1.75 million as part of the stimulus package. On August 13, 2010, Aossey sat at President Obama’s table in the White House to enjoy an Iftar meal.

The Islamic Center of Cedar Rapids (ICCR) was built in early 1962 with the assistance of Khalil al-Rauef, a close friend of the Saudi Royal Family who reportedly shared a common interest in Arabian horses with Eleanor Roosevelt. The publication of the Saudi state ARAMCO oil company states, “Nobody remaining in the Cedar Rapids Muslim community remembers just why al-Rauef settled there.” It is assumed that he was drawn to the success of the Muslim community.
Al-Rauef paved the way for Saudi King Faisal to donate $45,000 to the Islamic Center of Cedar Rapids in 1974. The government of Kuwait followed suit, donating $6,000. The government of Libya provided Korans. It is unclear if this happened under Qaddafi’s tenure.
The ICCR’s website happily tells the story of how Muslims from across the world came to America from all sorts of backgrounds in the early 1950s. It mentions “moderate groups like” the Muslim Brotherhood affiliate in Kuwait named Islah; the Jamaat-e-Islami of Pakistan and the Muslim Brotherhood of Sudan. The website praises how “radical groups banned in many Muslim countries” like “Jihad” (presumably the Egyptian Islamic Jihad), Takfir al-Hijra (an Al-Qaeda affiliate) and Hezbollah were able to come to the U.S. In the past, the website linked to Al-Haramain, a Saudi charity that fundraised for Al-Qaeda.
“Here they are able to forge links with students of other nations providing the nucleus for an international network of leaders committed to the creation of an Islamic state, or an Islamic world order,” the ICCR website states.
The mosque blames “ultra-conservative Christians” for causing terrorism. It claims that Islamic extremists “become a kind of mirror image of their Christian counterparts.” It says that “Many of them are being turned by their American experience into anti-Western, anti-Christian Islamic revivalists.” The ICCR teaches that the “root of the problem is the perception of many resident Muslims that the nation as a whole is prejudiced against them.” Disturbingly, a school for children up to nine years old named My Iman Montessori is located within the ICCR.
The ICCR engages in political activism. On January 2, 2008, the Muslim American Society (MAS) and two other unnamed groups held a class at ICCR to prepare Muslims to participate in the Iowa caucus. The MAS is a front for the Muslim Brotherhood. The MAS official involved, Miriam Amer, is now the leader of the Council on American-Islamic Relations’ Iowa chapter.
She said at the time, “If we can get even one-half of one percent of the Muslims in this state [to] participate in the caucus—with some even serving as precinct captains—we can insure that the proposed planks will become adopted at the state conventions, and help to shape U.S. policy in the future.” In the MAS website’s post on the event, she is quoted urging Muslims to “take part in a historic event that can tip the balance of power in this country.”
Houses of worship cannot campaign on behalf of a political party. The ICCR and MSA were aware of this mentioned that Amer has worked with both parties. It was still obvious that they were trying to get Iowa Muslims to turn out for the Democratic caucus and later, the Democratic presidential candidate. It noted that 44% of Republican voters in the Iowa caucus are evangelicals and said, “Overall, the GOP candidates have basically ignored the immigrant and Muslim vote this time around, opting instead to focus on the Conservative Christian vote.”
One of the ICCR’s most prominent attendees is Bill Aossey, who founded the Midamar Corporation in 1972 that provides Halal foods around the world. His maternal grandfather came to Iowa in 1888 as the first documented Muslim settler in the state. His father helped found the “Mother Mosque” of Cedar Rapids, the oldest standing mosque in the U.S., and the ICCR. In 1963, Aossey became the first Muslim to enter the Peace Corps.
Aossey sat on the board of directors of the American Muslim Council. Its former executive director is the notorious Abdurahman Alamoudi. He is a supporter of Hamas and Hezbollah and is in jail on terrorism-related charges. Another former executive director, Eric Erfan Vickers, suggested that the destruction of the space shuttle Columbia over Palestine, Texas was a judgment from Allah.
Midamar Corporation is a sponsor of the Council on American-Islamic Relations, Islamic Society of North America, Islamic Circle of North America and Muslim American Society. All are Muslim Brotherhood fronts. The first two were labeled by the federal government as “unindicted co-conspirators” in the Holy Land Foundation trial. The government presented evidence tying them to Hamas. In 2002 Aossey spoke at the Muslim Students Association’s Iowa conference alongside Siraj Wahhaj. In 2003, he spoke again for the event, along with Nihad Awad.
Despite these facts, Aossey sat at President Obama’s table for the August 13, 2010 Iftar dinner at the White House.[i] He said they did not discuss political matters. Midamar received a $1.75 million Small Business Administration loan guarantee as part of the stimulus.[ii]
Aossey is a representative of the Muslim Youth Camps of America. The organization had been leasing a 114-acre site at Coralville Lake from the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers to build one of its Muslim youth camps. On April 26, Aossey sent an email to inform the military that MYCA would not be renewing the lease.
There are other Islamist organizations worth mentioning in the Cedar Rapids area. On September 4, the Council on American-Islamic Relations opened up a new office in the city, according to its Facebook page. The coordinator of the Muslim Public Affairs Council’s Iowa chapter, Shams Ghoneim, resides a little over 30 miles away in Iowa City. She is a critic of anti-Islamist Muslim activist Zuhdi Jasser. After he spoke at the University of Iowa, she wrote that “The Shariah issue is fake, as no credible American Muslim is advocating it…Contrary to Jasser’s allegation, Islam has never advocated theocracy.”
CAIR, ISNA and the other prominent Muslim-American organizations tied to the Muslim Brotherhood say they are committed to fighting extremism. If that is so, they should take a stand against the teachings of the Islamic Center of Cedar Rapids.

Will The Coming Oil-Shale Revolution Lead To Decline Of Radical Islam?

December 1, 2011

Media_httpwwwdoigovar_nwdgf( Daled Amos) The Arabs are getting it that the new oil technology will make the West much less dependent on the Middle East for oil: The issue of global energy security seems changing nexus now, resulting in uncertain call on Saudi and OPEC oil in medium term. Large new, conventional and unconventional reserves in North America, and elsewhere, are questioning the dominant role of OPEC in meeting the global oil thirst. These new developments have also sapped the urgency to develop the Kingdom’s own reserves — further — at this stage. The transition has been in air for some time now — yet it has just been officially conceded — from the top. “The abundance of resources and the more ‘balanced’ geographical distribution of unconventionals have reduced the much-hyped concerns over ‘energy security’ which once served as the undercurrent driving energy policies and dominated the global energy debate,” Khalid Al-Falih, the Aramco CEO, said last week at the Energy Dialogue organized by the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center. …Good, old, uncle Cheney, the former US Vice president once said: “The problem is that the Good Lord didn’t see fit to put oil and gas reserves in places where there are more democratic governments.” His prayers seem to have been answered — finally! (MORE)

Amen. Game over for the liberal hippies who enabled Islam. celebrate by jumping in a car and driving real fast! That’s right ladies… no more sheik harems in Dubai while the Americans are unemployed and living at home with Mom and Dad. No more Pelosi… no more Obama. No more guilt.


The Coming Oil-Shale Revolution?

November 27, 2011

The chief executive of Saudi Arabia’s state-owned oil company- Aramco- has admitted that the development of large oil shale reserves in North America looks set to shift the monopoly over global energy supplies increasingly away from the Middle East.
Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (h/t Docs Talk)
Media_httpostseisanlg_qgbnhTo preface, when it comes to global petroleum supplies, a distinction is drawn between “conventional” and “unconventional” oil reserves. The former are still in abundance in oil fields throughout the Middle East, and petroleum is produced from them simply by drilling at oil wells. Unconventional reserves include tar sands and oil shale: the latter is a form of sedimentary rock that must first be decomposed at high temperatures before crude oil can be obtained for refinement.

In terms of reserves, it is estimated that conventional sources across the world can yield around 1.2 trillion barrels, while in the United States alone, anywhere between 500 billion and 1.1 trillion barrels are thought to be recoverable from oil shale. An immediately astonishing observation to draw is the low-end of the estimates for U.S. oil shale, which is still around twice as large as Saudi Arabia’s total reserves.
What makes this issue particularly relevant now is the emergence of reports on a potential breakthrough in oil shale extraction technology. Traditionally, extraction of oil shale has required the use of a method known as “fracking,” or “hydraulic fracturing” (to use the more technical term).
Hydraulic fracturing, however, has raised concerns because of issues such as contamination of groundwater and air pollution, besides the large amounts of water required for the process. The high water usage is particularly problematic in the Southwestern states that contain most of the United States’ oil shale reserves and are under water stress owing to drought in recent years.
Nonetheless, companies such as Chevron are now looking into the use of propane gel rather than water. Not only does this method require no water, but it also makes more sense from a technical point of view. As one former Halliburton Co engineer pointed out, “It’s an ideal liquid to crack the rock open with because it does not damage the rock like water would.” Accordingly, this pioneering process, despite some worries over propane gel’s flammability, is increasingly being given the green light by regulators in Canada and the United States.
In light of these developments, the chief executive of Saudi Arabia’s state-owned oil company- Aramco- has come to acknowledge that the development of large oil shale reserves in North America looks set to shift the monopoly over global energy supplies increasingly away from the Middle East. Indeed, Saudi Arabia has now halted a $100 billion expansion program that aims to expand Saudi output to 15 million barrels per day (bpd) by 2020.
Meanwhile, China is expected to be producing 1.1 million bpd of unconventional oil by 2035 (as opposed to 6.6 million bpd from the United States and Canada), a petroleum firm has announced the discovery of significant oil shale reserves in Argentina, and various companies have reported success in drilling wells for extracting natural gas from shale rocks in Poland.
Naturally, the following question arises: Are we finally moving into an era of complete energy independence from the Middle East and OPEC? If so, what are the implications?
As regards the former question, there is still one sign that appears to point to uncertainty. Despite anticipated increases in oil shale production, the fact remains that conventional oil will always be much cheaper to extract and use. Linked to this point is the International Energy Agency’s recent report that predicts Iraq will be the largest contributor to the growth in global oil production over the next 25 years. Iraqi crude, like that in Saudi Arabia, is perhaps the least expensive oil to extract in the world at only a few dollars per barrel.
Since state-control (which still exists) over the Iraqi oil industry and international sanctions have meant that for many years Iraq has produced oil largely for domestic consumption, there is still potential for exploration and discovery of new reserves in the country, hence, for instance, the recent exploration deal signed between ExxonMobil and the Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraq.
Since the 2003 invasion, Iraq has been able to secure numerous contracts with foreign firms in an effort to undergo a massive expansion in production for the international market, and output can only be expected to increase over the coming years. Peak oil for Iraq is not expected to occur until at least 2036.
Nonetheless, questions have been raised over export capacity hindered by outdated infrastructure. Perhaps paradoxically, the increased oil revenues for the Iraqi government mean that Baghdad is unlikely to shift towards liberalizing economic reforms, which in turn will continue the problem of excessive bureaucracy that impedes reconstruction and updating of infrastructure.
In any case, regardless of whether the West achieves energy independence from the Middle East, Saudi Arabia’s profits (as well as those of Qatar and the United Arab Emirates) from the oil industry will probably diminish in light of competition from Iraq and oil shale across the world. In this context, commentators will no doubt be wondering if these developments will mark a decline in Islamism around the world.
In fact, what Daniel Pipes terms the “Islamic revival” coincided with the surge in oil prices in the 1970s and 1980s, and so many analysts have drawn a major link between the two events. End the oil dependence, so the reasoning goes, and Saudi Arabia will be exhausted of petrodollars to fund and spread its Wahhabi ideology.
However, I remain skeptical of such claims, which appear to reduce simplistically the growth in Islamist ideology to a single cause. Of course, funds from Saudi Arabia have led to an upsurge in the Wahhabism in countries like Bosnia, where an individual influenced by the Wahhabi movement growing in Bosnia- Mevlid Jasarevic- opened fire on the American embassy in Sarajevo.

Oil revenues helped give militant Islam a start; but once up and running…
Nonetheless, Islamism is ultimately a problem rooted in questions of “identity and circumstance” (as Pipes puts it), and in the age of mass communication, it is much easier for those who draw on broad elements of traditional Islamic theology to justify doctrines of jihad as offensive warfare and imposing Islamic law to attain success in winning over peaceful Muslims to their causes.
Moreover, we see that in Egypt with the Muslim Brotherhood, Pakistan with its numerous Islamist movements, Tunisia with its an-Nahda movement, Yemen with al-Qa’ida, Somalia with ash-Shabaab, and Sudan with its regime under Omar al-Bashir (to name just a few), Islamism enjoys success without dependence on financial boosts from petroleum profits.
As Pipes noted back in 2002: “Oil revenues helped give militant Islam a start; but once up and running… it [militant Islam] no longer depends on this financial boost as shown by oil revenues having several times in the intervening years gone down without a noticeable reduction in militant Islam’s steady gains.”
In short, therefore, growing energy independence for the West via oil shale (a pleasing development in its own right) seems unlikely to hamper significantly the problem of Islamist ideology.
The only real solution- necessary, but difficult and almost certainly long-term- is honest reform within mainstream Islam to counter appeal to traditional notions of waging jihad against non-Muslims and imposing Shari’a in the public realm.


Eisenhower threatened to use the Treasury to destroy the British Pound.

November 13, 2011

On 26 July 1956, in retaliation for the loss of funding and to help pay for the Aswan project, Nasser gave a speech in Alexandria where he denounced Western influence in the Arab world and announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal Company.

The British tried to stage a phony crisis in order to send in peacekeeping troops that was aborted when Eisenhower threatened to use the Treasury to destroy the British Pound. Eisenhower would later go on to regret it, but the deed was done.

(SULTAN KNISH) Eisenhower’s intervention on behalf of Nasser’s seizure of the Suez Canal, and against England, (despite Nasser being a Soviet ally) demonstrated that America would rather turn on its allies, than risk alienating Arab and Muslim states. When the Saudis nationalized ARAMCO, they were confident that America would do nothing. And they were only partially wrong. America did something, it used taxpayer money to compensate shareholders for the nationalized by our “Saudi” friends.

Rice had been heavily influenced by James Baker

September 19, 2011

She had been a board member of Chevron, a company that had been formerly known as the Arabian American Oil Company or ARAMCO. Like Baker, Rice was an eager tool of the Saudis, and the old foreign policy came back with a vengeance.
Chevron… the people who fund the news on PBS?

A Brief History Of
Major Oil Companies
In The Gulf Region
With Corporate Contact Information
Compiled By
Eric V. Thompson

Petroleum Archives Project
Arabian Peninsula & Gulf Studies Program
University of Virginia
Prepared with support from
The Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences


Amoco

1889: Standard Oil (Indiana) founded as subsidiary of Standard Oil Trust
1911: Standard Oil of Indiana founded with dissolution of Standard Oil
1910s: Standard Oil of Indiana purchases Pan American Petroleum
1914: Standard Oil of Indiana licenses “thermal cracking” process for producing gasoline to competing oil companies
1925: Standard Oil of Indiana acquires controlling interest in Pan American Petroleum and Transport Company
1932: Standard Oil of Indiana sells Venezuela operation to Jersey
1954: Pan American and Standard of Indiana merge, new company is called American Oil Company [Amoco]
1957: Begins joint venture with Iran independent of Iranian Oil Consortium
1958: Amoco signs agreement with Shah of Iran
1960s: Amoco Egypt Oil Company, Cairo, founded
1980s: Amoco Sharjah Oil Company, Sharjah, U.A.E., in partnership with UEA, produces natural gas and natural gas liquids in Sharjah
1990s: Amoco Oman Oil Company begins oil and gas exploration program

Corporate Offices:
Amoco Corporation,
200 East Randolph Drive,
Chicago, IL 60601-7125;
phone: (312) 856-6111;
e-mail: info@amoco.com.


Arco

1866: Atlantic Petroleum Storage Company founded
1870: Atlantic Petroleum Storage Company establishes Atlantic Refining Company (Atlantic)
1874: Atlantic sold to John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Trust
1905: Richfield Oil Corporation founded
1911: Standard Oil Trust dissolved under Sherman Antitrust Act, and Atlantic is spun off as independent company
1916: Sinclair Oil Corporation, founded by Harry F. Sinclair
1931: Richfield goes into receivership and Sinclair merges with Rio Grande Oil and Prairie Pipeline and Prairie Oil and Gas Companies
1936: Richfield Oil Corporation emerges from receivership
1952: Atlantic begins offshore Gulf Coast production
1963: Atlantic purchased the Hondo Oil & Gas Company
1966: Richfield Oil Corporation merges with Atlantic Refining Company, creating Atlantic Richfield Company [ARCO]
1968: ARCO partners with Exxon for Alaskan North Slope production
1969: ARCO acquires Sinclair Oil Corporation
1972: ARCO headquarters moves from New York City to Los Angeles
1977: ARCO acquires the Anaconda Company
1985: ARCO divests East Coast marketing and refining operations
1988: Tricentrol acquired by ARCO
1988: ARCO completes merger with Houston based Union Texas Petroleum Holding Inc.
1989: ARCO forms anew publicly held company, Lyondell Petrochemical
1993: ARCO’s U.S. oil and gas business restructured and divided into four business units—ARCO Permian, ARCO Western Energy, ARCO Long Beach, Inc., and Vastar Resources, Inc.
1994: Vastar Resources Inc. initiates a public offering of 17 million shares of its common stock
1996: ARCO signs Production Sharing Contract with Sonatrach, the Algerian state oil company, to undertake major Enhanced Oil Recovery project in Algeria’s second largest oil field, Rhourde El Baguel
1997: ARCO and Russia’s largest oil company, LUKOIL, sign joint venture agreement to invest in oil and gas projects in Russia and other countries
1998: ARCO subsidiary (Western Midway Co.) and a unit of Mobil Corporation reaches agreement to exchange oil and gas properties in California’s San Joaquin Valley and the Gulf of Mexico; The California properties owned by Western Midway go to Mobil, while Mobil oil and gas properties in the Gulf go to Western Midway. Upon completion of the exchange, Western Midway will be sold to Vastar Resources Inc. (82.2% owned by ARCO)
1998: ARCO sells majority interest in ARCO Chemical Company and divests its coal assets in the U.S.

Corporate Offices:
Arco Corporate Headquarters
515 South Flower Street
Los Angeles, CA 90071
(213) 486-3511


Ashland Oil

1924: Ashland Refining Company of Ashland, Ky., founded as a refining arm of Swiss Oil Company of Lexington
1930: Ashland Purchases Tri-State Refining
1931: Acquires Cumberland Pipeline Company’s eastern Kentucky pipeline network
1936: Ashland Refining merges with Swiss Oil to form Ashland Oil & Refining Company
1946: Ashland Oil & Refining Company products first sold under the brand name “Ashland”
1948: Ashland and Allied Oil merge
1949: Ashland and Aetna Oil merge, Ashland acquires Kentucky retail marketing operation Freedom-Valvoline, including Valvoline Motor Oil brand and also acquires Southern Pipe Line Company
1950: Frontier Oil Refining of Buffalo, N.Y., and National Refining of Cleveland, Ohio, join Ashland
1956: Acquisition of R. J. Brown Company of St. Louis.
1963: Ashland acquires United Oil
1966: Ashland acquires Warren Brothers construction company
1967: Ashland purchases ADM Chemical Group and forms Ashland
1969: Ashland forms Ashland Petroleum operating division and Arch Mineral
1970: Ashland changes name to Ashland Oil, Inc.
1970: Ashland acquires Northwestern Refining of St. Paul, Minn. and the SuperAmerica retail marketing chain
1971: Exploration and production activities are consolidated into Ashland Exploration
1975: Construction division is formed, and Ashland Coal is created
1991: Ashland acquires The Permian Corporation and merges with Scurlock Oil Company
1992: Ashland Chemical acquires most of Unocal’s chemical distribution business, establishing the IC&S Division
1994: Ashland’s Valvoline acquires Zerex
1995: Ashland changes company’s name to Ashland Inc.
1997: Ashland signs agreements with Marathon to combine the refining, marketing and transportation assets of the companies. Ashland acquires 38 percent of Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC

Corporate Offices:
Ashland Inc. Headquarters
1000 Ashland Drive
Russell, KY 41169
(606) 329-3333


Chevron

1879: Pacific Coast Oil Company established
1900: Pacific Coast Oil purchased by Standard Oil, but remains separate operation
1906: Pacific Coast Oil consolidated with other Western US operations of Standard Oil into Standard Oil Company (California)
1911: Dissolution of Standard Oil Trust makes Standard Oil of California (Socal) independent
1926: Socal merges with Pacific Oil Company
1929: Socal establishes Bahrain Petroleum Company to hold Bahrain concession
1932: Bahrain Petroleum strikes oil in Bahrain
1933: Socal wins Saudi Arabia concession; Socal establishes California-Arabia Standard Oil Company, Casoc, to hold concession for Saudi Arabia
1933: Socal discoveries oil in Saudi Arabia
1936: Texaco joins with Standard Oil of California (later Chevron), to found the Arab-American Oil Company [Aramco]
1936: Texaco purchases half interest in Bahrain Petroleum and California-Arabian Standard Oil Company (Calarabian) from Socal
1936: California-Texas company, Caltex, founded as a joint venture between Socal and Texaco as outlet for future oil production in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1961: Socal buys Standard of Kentucky
1974: Bahraini government acquires 60% interest in BAPCO
1980: Bahraini government acquires remaining interest in BAPCO
1984: Socal buys Gulf Corporation and after restructuring changes name to Chevron Corporation
1993: Chevron undertakes a joint venture with the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan forming a new company named Tengizchevroil
1993: Pennzoil Company assimilates Chevron

Corporate Offices:
Chevron Corporation
575 Market Street
San Francisco, CA 94105-2856
415-894-7700


Conoco

1875: Continental Oil and Transportation Company founded
1885: Continental Oil and Transportation Company reincorporated as Continental within the Standard Oil trust
1913: Continental Oil reincorporated after breakup of Standard Oil Trust
1917: Marland Oil Company founded
1929: Continental Oil company merged with portions of Rocky Mountain (a former component of Standard oil) and Marland
Mid-1950s: Continental joins partnership with Marathon and Amerada, called Oasis Group
1981: Conoco becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of by E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company
1981: Conoco reorganized as Continental Group

Corporate Offices: Conoco Center
600 North Dairy Ashford
Houston, TX 77079
P.O. Box 2197
Houston, TX
ZIP Code 77252
Phone: (281) 293-1000
Telex: 775347
Fax: (281) 293-1440


Exxon

1882: Standard Oil of New Jersey formed by Standard Oil Trust
1888: Standard Oil of New Jersey establishes Anglo-American Oil Co. (predecessor of Esso Petroleum Co.) to market oil in the British Isles
1899: Standard Oil of New Jersey becomes a holding company for Standard Oil Interests, a subsidiary of Standard Oil
1898: Standard Oil of New Jersey gains control of Imperial Oil Limited of Canada
1928: Standard Oil of New Jersey acquires interest in Turkish (now Iraq) Petroleum Co.
1911: Standard Oil of New Jersey [Jersey] becomes independent with dissolution of Standard Oil Trust
1911: Humble Oil Company formed
1919: Jersey acquires majority ownership of Humble Oil
1930: Anglo-American acquired by Jersey
1933: Socony-Vacuum and Standard of New Jersey merge their Far East facilities and interests into a 50-50 venture called Standard-Vacuum Oil Co., or Stanvac
1947: Jersey affiliate, Imperial, strikes oil in Canada
1947: Anglo-Iranian, Jersey and Socony sign 20-year contract with Iran
1948: Jersey (30%) and Socony-Vacuum (10%) join Socal (30%) and Texaco (30%) in Aramco venture
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1959: Jersey buys remainder of Humble Oil
1959: Jersey strikes oil in Libya
1960: Jersey begins to market gasoline under the brand name Esso
1960: Jersey purchases Monterey Oil
1961: Jersey buys Honolulu Oil
1962: Assets of Stanvac split between Jersey and Socony Mobil
1972: Jersey changes name to Exxon
1972: Iraq nationalizes Iraq Petroleum Company, of which Exxon is 12% owner
1972: Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait and Qatar acquire 25% interest in Exxon’s production operations (in country), with right to increase stake to 51% by 1982
1980: Exxon buys Colony Oil Shale Project
1981: Exxon sells Esso Standard Libya to Libyan government
1982: Exxon ends Colony Oil Shale Project
1985: Exxon acquires 48% of Hunt Oil Company’s production sharing agreement in North Yemen
1998: Exxon and Mobil announce plans for merger

Corporate Offices:
5959 Las Colinas Blvd.
Irving, TX 75039-2298
Phone: 972-444-1000
Fax: 972-444-1882


Getty

1928: Pacific Western Oil Corporation incorporated as a holding company for Edward L. Doherty and family which subsequently came under the control of J. Paul Getty
1930s: Rocky Mountain division of Pacific Western, a Getty subsidiary, begins oil exploration in Saudi Arabia
1933: Pacific Western wins Saudi Arabia concession
1949: Getty’s Western Pacific Oil Corporation signs concession for Saudi half of the Neutral Zone with Saudi government
1956: All of J. Paul Getty’s oil holdings organized under Getty Oil
1953: Getty acquires Tidewater Oil
1984: Texaco acquires Getty


Gulf Oil

1901: Guffey Oil founded
1901: Gulf Refining Company founded
1907: William Mellon reorganizes Guffey Oil and Gulf Refining under name of Gulf Oil Corporation
1922: Gulf Oil Corporation forms Eastern Gulf Oil Company
1928: Gulf joins Turkish Petroleum Company
1929: Gulf buys Paragon Refining Company
1934: Gulf sells its share of Iraq Petroleum Company to Socal
1934: Anglo-Iranian and Gulf Oil Corporation establish Kuwait Oil Company as a 50-50 joint venture to compete for Kuwait concession (which they obtain); Subsequent agreement establishes British control of KOC
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1955: Acquires Warren Petroleum
1971: Gulf purchases 10% in Syncrude Canada Limited
1984: Chevron buys Gulf


Marathon

1887: Ohio Oil Company founded
1889: Ohio Oil Company purchased by J.D. Rockefeller subsequently consolidated into the Standard Oil Trust
1905: Marathon headquarters moved to Findlay, Ohio
1911: Standard Oil Company of Ohio [Sohio] separated from Rockefeller’s “Standard Trust”
Mid-1950s: Sohio joins partnership with Continental and Amerada, called Oasis Group
1962: Ohio Oil Company renamed the Marathon Oil Company
1962: Marathon buys Plymouth Oil
1982: Marathon becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, which has since become USX Corporation
1991: USX issues separate shares of common stock to reflect the performance of its two major businesses (steel and oil) and reinstates Marathon’s symbol (MRO) on major stock exchanges
1990: Marathon Oil Company headquarters moved to Houston
1997: Ashland signs agreements with Marathon to combine the refining, marketing and transportation assets of the companies; Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC formed Ashland acquires 38 percent of Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC

Corporate Offices:
Marathon Oil Company
539 South Main Street
Findlay, Ohio 45840


Mesa Petroleum

1956: After resigning as a geologist with Phillips Petroleum Co., T. Boone Pickens forms development and production company called Petroleum Exploration
1959: Altair Oil and Gas is established to conduct oil and gas exploration in Canada
1964: Petroleum Exploration, Inc., and Altair merge to form Mesa Petroleum Co.
1967: Mesa Petroleum Co. shares began trading on the American Stock Exchange
1969: In hostile takeover, Pickens merges larger Hugoton into Mesa
1979: Mesa sells holdings in Canada and the North Sea to reduce debt and buy additional Hugoton reserves; Mesa also creates the Mesa Royalty Trust
1983: Mesa forms Gulf Investors Group (GIG)
1984: Mesa repurchases nearly 90 percent of the GIG units in a $500 million public tender offer
1985: The Mesa Petroleum Company changes its name to the Mesa Limited Partnership
1986: Mesa purchases Pioneer Corporation
1988: MESA partnership acquires gas reserves from Tenneco Inc.
1991: Mesa Limited Partnership changes name to MESA Inc.

Corporate Offices:
712 Main St.
Houston, TX 77002
Phone: 713-216-6369
Fax: 713-216-5476


Mobil

1866: The Vacuum Oil Co. incorporated
1879: Standard Oil Co., headed by John D. Rockefeller, purchases a three-quarter interest in Vacuum
1870: Rockefeller and four partners organize Standard Oil Company in Ohio
1882: Rockefeller organizes his various oil holdings into the Standard Oil Trust, with headquarters in New York
1882: Standard Oil of New York formed
1911: Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony) founded with dissolution of Standard Oil
1918: Socony purchases a 45% interest in Magnolia Petroleum Co.
1926: Socony purchases the properties of General Petroleum Corp. of California
1929: Vacuum acquires the Lubrite Refining Co., a refining and marketing company based in St. Louis
1930: Socony acquires White Eagle Oil & Refining Co.
1930: Vacuum acquires Wadhams Oil Corp., and the White Star Refining Co.
1931: Socony acquires all the assets of Vacuum Oil Co. and changes its name to Socony-Vacuum Corp.
1933: Socony-Vacuum and Standard of New Jersey merge their Far East facilities and interests into a 50-50 venture called Standard-Vacuum Oil Co., or Stanvac
1934: Socony-Vacuum Corp. changes its name to Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., Inc.
1947: Anglo-Iranian, Jersey and Socony sign 20-year contract with Iran
1948: Jersey (30%) and Socony-Vacuum (10%) join Socal (30%) and Texaco (30%) in Aramco venture
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texaco and Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1955: Socony-Vacuum changes name to Socony Mobil Oil Company
1959: Magnolia Petroleum and General Petroleum merged with other domestic subsidiaries into Socony Mobil Oil Company; Two major operating divisions created within the company: Mobil Oil Co. for the U.S. and Canada, and Mobil International Oil Co. for the rest of the world (except the areas in which Stanvac had interests)
1960: Mobil Chemical Co. formed
1960: Mobil Petroleum Co. Inc. formed to oversee Socony Mobil’s 50% interest in Stanvac
1962: Assets of Stanvac split between Jersey and Socony Mobil
1966: Socony Mobil Oil Co. changes name to Mobil Oil Corporation. Mobil Oil Co. becomes the North American Division; Mobil International becomes the International Division, with coordinating responsibility for Mobil Petroleum Co. Inc.
1971: Mobil enters joint venture with Iranian Oil Company
1972: Mobil’s 11.875% stake in Iraq Petroleum Company is nationalized
1975: Mobil increases its share of Aramco from 10% to 15%
1976: Mobil completes acquisition of Marcor, the holding company for Montgomery Ward Department Stores
1976: Mobil Corporation formed as holding company
1979: Mobil sells 51% of its Turkish refinery to Turkish Petroleum
1984: Mobil acquires 100% of Superior Oil
1985: Yanbu Petrochemical Company (YANPET), a joint venture petrochemicals complex at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia plant begins operation; Mobil and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) are 50-50 partners in YANPET
1996: The Qatargas project, in which Mobil has a 10% interest, comes on line producing first LNG from Qatar
1996: Mobil commissions two new plants in Yemen and Syria
1997: Second Qatargas liquefaction train completed
1998: Exxon and Mobil announce plans for merger

Corporate Offices:
3225 Gallows Rd.
Fairfax, VA 22037-0001
Phone: 703-846-3000
Fax: 703-846-4669


Occidental Petroleum

1910: Cities Service Company formed
1920: Occidental Petroleum founded
1953: Cities Service Company obtains Dhofar province concession in Oman
1956: Armand Hammer buys Occidental Petroleum
1965: Cities Service Company begins marketing products under the brand name “CITGO”
1965: Occidental wins oil concession in Libya
1983: Occidental acquires Cities Service Company
1983: Occidental reorganized Cities’ assets and sells newly formed “CITGO Petroleum Corporation” to Southland Corporation
1980s: Libya nationalizes 51% of Occidental’s operation in Libya
1986: Occidental acquired the Midcon Corporation,
1994: Occidental Petroleum Corp. completes acquisition of Placid Oil Co., which was founded in 1936 by H.L. Hunt
1995: Occidental purchases 19% stake in Clark USA
1998: Occidental and Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Dutch oil group complete a $1bn global asset swap
1998: Occidental sells Occidental Netherlands Inc. unit to TransCanada Pipelines Ltd.

Corporate Offices:
Corporate Headquarters
Occidental Petroleum Corporation
10889 Wilshire Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90024-4201
(310) 208-8800


Pennzoil

1889: South Penn Oil Company organized as a unit of Standard Oil Company
1916: Name “Pennzoil” trademarked by Pennsylvania Refining Company, a predecessor to Pennzoil
1954: Bill Liedtke, John Overby, and George Bush form Zapata Offshore Oil Company
1963: Pennzoil Company is formed through consolidation of South Penn Oil Company, STETCO Petroleum Corporation and Zapata Offshore Oil Company
1965: Pennzoil Company acquires United Gas Corporation
1993: Pennzoil Company assimilates Chevron
1994: Pennzoil Company signs oil development deal with Qatar
1995: Pennzoil Company agrees to concession agreement with Egypt for Gulf of Suez
1998: Pennzoil-Quaker State Company was formed with merger of Pennzoil and Quaker State
1998: Simultaneous with the Pennzoil-Quaker State merger, the Pennzoil Company’s marketing, manufacturing and fast oil change businesses (Pennzoil Products Group) is spun off and renamed the PennzEnergy Company

Corporate Offices:
Pennzoil
700 Milam
Houston, TX 77002
(713) 546-4000


Phillips Petroleum Company

1905: Phillips brothers begin oil exploration
1917: Phillips Petroleum Company founded by Frank Phillips
1922: Phillips forms the predecessor to what today is GPM Gas Corp
1925: Research and Development Group formed
1969: Phillips’ Kenai LNG Plant begins operation
1985: Phillips successfully fends off hostile take-over attempts
1992: GPM Gas Corporation formed

Corporate Offices:
411 S. Keeler Ave.
Bartlesville, OK 74004
Phone: 918-661-6600
Fax: 918-661-6279


Shell

1833: Marcus Samuel starts import export business in London
1890: Royal Dutch Company launched
1892: Marcus commissions the first special oil tanker and delivers 4,000 tons of Russian kerosene to Singapore and Bangkok
1897: Samuel’s company begins to operate under the name Shell Transport and Trading Company, Limited
1903: Shell and Dutch company N.V. Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij tot Explotatie van Petroleum-bronnen in Nederlandsch-Indië form the Asiatic Petroleum Company
1903: Royal Dutch and Shell group begins joint marketing campaign under name “British Dutch”
1906-1914: British Dutch Group acquires producing interests in: Romania (1906), Russia (1910), Egypt (1911), Venezuela (1913) and Trinidad (1914)
1907: Royal Dutch/Shell partnership is extended worldwide, with the creation of the Royal Dutch / Shell Group of Companies
1912: Trading in the US starts after the acquisition of the American Gasoline Company, an American marketing company
1912: Turkish Petroleum Company founded with 50% ownership by Turkish National Bank, 25% Deutsche Bank, 25% Royal Dutch/Shell
1915: Formation of the Shell Company in California
1918: Royal Dutch/Shell buys Mexican Eagle
1922: Shell Union Oil Corporation [later Shell Oil Company] formed to consolidate Shell interests in the US with those of the Union Oil Company of Delaware
1937: Shell, Total, and Partex form the consortium Petroleum Development (Oman and Dhofar) later, Petroleum Development Oman
1945-55: Exploratory drilling in Tunisia, Algeria, Nigeria, Trinidad and offshore in British Borneo; Production from the Iraq Petroleum Company increases dramatically
1949: Royal Dutch shortens its corporate title to “Shell”
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1956: Shell discovers oil in the Sahara
1959: Joint Shell/Esso exploration company called N.V. Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) discovers gas fields in Groningen in the Netherlands
1974: Omani government claims 25% interest Petroleum Development Oman
1975: Omani government raises its interest in Petroleum Development Oman to 60%
1979: Shell acquires Belridge Oil
1984: Shell buys minority interest (30%) in Shell Oil US
Mid-1980s: Royal Dutch/Shell buys remaining 31% of Shell Oil U.S.A. (the remainder that it did not yet own)
1998: Shell Oil Co., Texaco Inc. and Saudi Aramco initiate joint venture combining their eastern U.S. refining and marketing assets under the name Motiva Enterprises LLC, paralleling a joint venture launched by Shell and Texaco under the name Equilon Enterprises LLC for their Midwest, Southwest and West Coast downstream assets; Shell to own 35% of Houston-based Motiva, while Texaco and Aramco will each own 32.5%
1998: Occidental and Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Dutch oil group complete a $1bn global asset swap

Corporate Offices:
Shell Oil
One Shell Plaza
Houston, TX 77002
Phone: 713-241-6161
Fax: 713-241-4044
Royal Dutch/ Shell Group
2596 HR The Hague, The Netherlands
Phone: +31-70-377-3395
Fax: +31-70-377-4848


Sun Company Inc.

1886: Robert Pew founds Sun Oil Company
1901: New Jersey Oil and Gas incorporated
1968: Sun buys Sunray (DX)
1971: Sun Oil Company reorganized and renamed Sun Company Incorporated

Corporate Offices:
Ten Penn Center 1801 Market Street
Philadelphia Pa 191031699
Telephone: 215-977-3000


Texaco

1897: Joe Cullinan founds Texas Fuel Company
1903: Joe Cullinan and Arnold Schlaet found The Texas Oil Company in Beaumont, Texas
1906: Texas Oil Company registers the trademark name, “Texaco”
1936: Texas Oil Company purchases half interest in Bahrain Petroleum and California-Arabian Standard Oil Company (Calarabian) from Socal
1936: Texas Oil Company joins with Standard Oil of California (later Chevron), to found the Arab-American Oil Company [Aramco]
1936: California-Texas company, Caltex, founded as a joint venture between Socal and Texas Oil Company as outlet for future oil production in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1956: Texas Oil Company acquires Regent Oil, a British company
1959: Texas Oil Company purchases the Paragon group of companies
1959: Texas Oil Company adopts the name Texaco for all of its businesses
1962: Texaco acquires White Fuel Corporation
1964: Purchases Superior Oil Company Venezuela
1984: Texaco acquires Getty Oil Company
1988: Texaco Forms Star Enterprise, a 50/50 joint venture with Saudi Refining Inc., to refine, distribute and market Texaco-branded products in the Eastern U.S.
1995: Texaco and Norsk Hydro formed a joint venture, Hydro Texaco, to market petroleum products throughout Scandinavia
1998: Texaco acquires Monterey Resources, a California based independent oil and gas producer
1998: Texaco and Shell Oil form downstream alliance in the Western U.S.
1998: Shell Oil Co., Texaco Inc. and Saudi Aramco initiate joint venture combining their eastern U.S. refining and marketing assets under the name Motiva Enterprises LLC, paralleling a joint venture launched by Shell and Texaco under the name Equilon Enterprises LLC for their Midwest, Southwest and West Coast downstream assets; Shell to own 35% of Houston-based Motiva, while Texaco and Aramco will each own 32.5%

Corporate Offices:
Texaco Inc.
2000 Westchester Ave.
White Plains, NY 10650
(9140 253-4000


Union Oil (Unocal)

1890: Union Oil formed in California by merger of Hardison & Stewart Oil Company, the Sespe Oil Company, and the Torrey Canyon Oil Company
1917: Union purchases Pinal-Dome Oil Company
1922: Shell buys 25% of Union Oil of California
1922: Shell Union Oil Corporation formed to consolidate Shell interests in the US with those of the Union Oil Company of Delaware
1965: Union acquires Pure Oil
1983: Union Oil changes name to Unocal
1992: Ashland Chemical acquires most of Unocal’s chemical distribution business, establishing the IC&S Division

Corporate Offices:
2141 Rosecrans Ave., Ste. 4000
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone: 310-726-7600
Fax: 310-726-7817


British Petroleum (Anglo-Persian Oil)

1886: Burmah Oil founded in Scotland
1901: Shah of Iran signs concession agreement with William D’arcy
1904: Burmah Oil signs agreement to supply oil to British Admiralty
1905: Burmah Oil and D’arcy oil merged into Concession Syndicate
1908: Oil struck in commercial quantities in Iran
1909: Anglo- Persian Oil formed and Burmah Oil buys majority (97%) of shares in initial public offering
1914: British government becomes majority stockholder in Anglo- Persian Oil
1918: Anglo- Persian Oil purchases British Petroleum from British Government, which in turn had seized the company form Deutsche Bank during W.W.I.
1932: Shah cancels Anglo-Persian concession
1933: Anglo-Persian wins back Iran concession
1934: Anglo-Iranian and Gulf Oil Corporation establish Kuwait Oil Company as a 50-50 joint venture to compete for Kuwait concession (which they obtain); Subsequent agreement establishes British control of KOC
1935: Anglo-Persian renamed Anglo-Iranian Oil Company Ltd.
1947: Anglo-Iranian, Jersey and Socony sign 20-year contract with Iran
1951: Mossadegh nationalizes Anglo-Iranian assets in Iran and founds National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) to administer nationalized assets
1954: Anglo-Iranian re-named British Petroleum, previously the name of one of its subsidiaries
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1962: British Petroleum begins commercial development in Abu Dhabi
1966: British Petroleum begins commercial development in Libya
1969: British Petroleum signs agreement with the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, which became effective in January 1970; According to the agreement Standard takes over BP’s leases in Alaska; In return, BP acquires 25% of Standard’s equity, a stake that would rise to a majority holding in 1978
1970: BP sells 33% of El Bunduq oilfield to a Japanese consortium in exchange for access to Japanese markets
1972: BP sells 33% of Abu Dhabi Main Areas Ltd. to Japanese oil company
Mid-1980s: BP buys 53% of Sohio, Sohio becomes BP’s American arm, eventually buying all of the outstanding stock
1987: British government sells of its stock in BP
1987: British Petroleum acquires remaining stock of Sohio as well as British company Britoil
1987: Sohio merged with other BP interests to form BP America
1988: Kuwait Investment Office holding of BP stock reaches 21.6%
1989: British government forces reduction in KIO holding to 9.9% of BP stock
1998: BP announces merger with Amoco, new company will operate under the name BP Amoco p.l.c.

Corporate Offices:
Britannic House, One Finsbury Circus
London EC2M 7BA, UK
Phone: +44-171-496-4000
Fax: +44-171-496-4630


Elf Aquitaine

1941: Societe Nationale des Petroles d’Aquitaine (SNPA) incorporated at the initiative of the French government
1966: French government merges gas and oil interests into Enterprise de Recherches et d’Activities Petrolieres (ERAP), giving ERAP majority ownership of SNPA
1974: ERAP begins onshore and offshore exploration in Iran
1976: ERAP is reorganized and increases share of SNPA ownership to 70%
1976: ERAP changes name to Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine, known as Elf Aquitaine Group

Corporate Offices:
Elf Aquitaine, Inc.
444 Madison Avenue – 20th floor
New York – NY 10022
USA
Tel: (1) 212 922 30 04
Fax: (1) 212 922 30 74


Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI)

1953: Enrico Mattei founds Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi [ENI] as a conglomeration of 36 subsidiaries including AGIP, with government sanction
1956: Signs 50-50 oil cooperation deal with National Iranian Oil Company
1970-75: Founds Agip (Qatar) Ltd,
1980s: Libya gains control of 50% of ENI Libya
1981: Enoxy, a joint ENI Occidental petrochemical and mining venture founded
1985: ENI wins contract to construct pipeline in Iraq
1986: ENI wins portion of a pipeline contact for Yemen
1992: ENI transformed into joint stock company traded on Italian and NYSE

Corporate Offices:
Piazzale Enrico Mattei 1
00144 Rome, Italy
Phone: +39-0-6-59-822-624
Fax: +39-0-6-59-002-141


Iraq Petroleum Company

1912: Turkish Petroleum Company founded with 50% ownership by Turkish National Bank, 25% Deutsche Bank, 25% Royal Dutch/Shell
1914: Turkish Petroleum Company reorganized, with Anglo-Persian holding 50%, Deutsche Bank and Shell each holding 25%
1914: Ottoman Grand Vizier promises Mesopotamian concession to Turkish Petroleum Company, but final concession agreement is not signed
1922: CFP joins Turkish Petroleum Company
1925: Turkish Petroleum Company gains oil concession in Iraq
1928: Gulf joins Turkish Petroleum Company
1928: Royal Dutch/Shell, Anglo-Persian, CFP, Exxon, Mobil, Atlantic Richfield, Gulf Oil Corporation, Standard Oil of Indiana [Amoco], and Participations and Explorations Corp., establish a joint venture called the Near East Development Company; The Near East Development Company signs “Red Lines Agreement” binding participating companies to cooperate with Turkish Petroleum Company in any ventures in Turkey, the Levant, Iraq and Arabian Peninsula (Atlantic, Gulf, and Standard eventually sell their shares to other participants)
1929: Turkish Petroleum changes name to Iraq Petroleum Company
1932: Mosul Petroleum Company formed to hold northern portion of IPC’s Iraq concession
1938: Basrah Petroleum Company formed to hold southern portion of IPC’s Iraq concession
1939: IPC establishes Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company Ltd. (ADPC) to hold Abu Dhabi concession
1939: British government seizes IPC shares held by CFP
1966: Iraq revokes portions of IPC concession and nationalizes these concessions
1972: Iraq nationalizes remaining IPC concessions
1973: Iraq nationalizes assets of foreign assets in Basrah Petroleum Company


National Iranian Oil Company

1951: Iran nationalizes National Iranian Oil Company
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Jersey, Socony, Texaco and Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, Iricon Agency Ltd., Richfield Oil Corp., Signal Oil and Gas, Aminoil, Sohio, Getty, Atlantic Oil, Tidewater Oil, San Jacinto Petroleum Corp., and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP). IOP then negotiates agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1973: Oil Services Company of Iran (Osco) formed by NIOC to take over operations of IOP
1957: National Iranian Oil Company signs deal with ENI for oil production
1971: Mobil enters joint venture with National Iranian Oil Company
1990: National Iranian Oil Company signs agreement to import about 200,000 barrels a day of gas oil and kerosene from Bahrain, Qatar and Abu Dhabi refineries ending embargoes established during the Iran-Iraq war


Kuwait National Petroleum Company

1934: Anglo-Iranian and Gulf Oil Corporation establish Kuwait Oil Company as a 50-50 joint venture to compete for Kuwait concession (which they obtain); Subsequent agreement establishes British control of KOC
1934: Sheikh Ahmed grants 75-year concession to KOC
1951: KOC oil concession extended for additional 17 years
1960: Kuwait National Petroleum Company established as a shareholder company owned by the government and the private sector
1968: KNPC commissions Shuaiba Refinery, the world’s first all hydrogen refinery
1974: Kuwaiti government acquires 60 ownership of KOC
1975: KNPC becomes a fully state-owned company
1980: Kuwait Petroleum Corporation created, KNPC becomes fully owned by KPC; KNPC takes charge of the three oil refineries; Mina Al-Ahmadi, Mina Abdulla and Shuaiba, in addition to the LPG plant in Mina Al-Ahmadi
1981: Kuwait Oil Company purchases the Santa Fe International Corp., of California

Corporate Offices:
Head Office
P.O. Box 70 Safat
13001 Safat – Kuwait
Telephone:
Buildings 1 & 2: (+965) 2420121/2425553
Emad Center: (+965) 2436333
Behbehani Building: (+965) 2449401
Fax: (+965) 2433839


Saudi Aramco

1933: King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud signs agreement authorizing Standard Oil of California (Socal) to explore for oil in what is now the Eastern Province of the Kingdom
1933: Saudi government signed a concession agreement with the Standard Oil Company of California, predecessor of today’s Chevron
1938: Commercial oil production begins in Saudi Arabia
1944: Calarabian a joint venture of Socal and Texaco changes name to Arabian –American Oil Company [Aramco]
1948: Jersey and Socony-Vacuum join Socal and Texaco in Aramco venture
1949: Saudi Arabia builds Tapline through northern Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon to the Mediterranean
1973: Saudi Arabian Government begins purchasing Aramco’s assets from its shareholders, Socal (later Chevron), Texaco, Exxon and Socony-Vacuum (Mobil)
1975: Aramco initiates work to design, build and operate twin industrial cities at Jubail on the Gulf and Yanbu on the Red Sea
1980: Saudi Government acquires 100 percent of Aramco’s shares, although Aramco partners continue to operate and manage Saudi Arabia’s oil fields
1985: Yanbu Petrochemical Company (YANPET), a joint venture petrochemicals complex at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia plant begins operation; Mobil and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) are 50-50 partners in YANPET
1988: Royal decree establishes the Saudi Arabian Oil Company [Saudi Aramco] to take over the management and operations of Saudi Arabia’s oil and gas fields from Aramco
1988: Saudi Aramco forms a joint venture with Texaco called Star Enterprise; Under the agreement, a Saudi Aramco subsidiary acquires a 50 percent share in Star’s three refineries in the United States
1991: Saudi Aramco acquires a 35 percent interest in SangYong Oil Refining Company, South Korea’s third-largest refiner and leading lubricant manufacturer,
1993: Royal decree merges all of the Kingdom’s state-owned refining, product-distribution and marketing operations, as well as the Government’s half-interest in three joint-venture refineries into Saudi Aramco
1994: Saudi Aramco enters joint venture with the Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) purchasing a 40-percent stake in Petron Corp
1996: Saudi Aramco acquires a 50 percent interest in Motor Oil Hellas and Avin Oil, the refining and distribution affiliates of Greece’s Vardinoyannis Group
1998: Shell Oil Co., Texaco Inc. and Saudi Aramco initiate joint venture combining their eastern U.S. refining and marketing assets under the name Motiva Enterprises LLC, paralleling a joint venture launched by Shell and Texaco under the name Equilon Enterprises LLC for their Midwest, Southwest and West Coast downstream assets; Shell to own 35% of Houston-based Motiva, while Texaco and Aramco will each own 32.5%

Corporate Offices:
PO Box 5000
Dhahran 31311
Saudi Arabia
Phone: +966-3-875-4915
Fax: +966-3-873-8490


Total Oil (CFP)

1924: Foundation of the French Compagnie Francaise Des Petroles (CFP), which assumes French shares of Turkish Petroleum Company
1927: Discovery of the first oil field near Kirkuk in Iraq
1954/5: Creation and registration of the trademark TOTAL, and foundation of the first companies marketing TOTAL products
1954: Consortium of oil companies, including British Petroleum, Exxon, Socony, Texas Oil, Socal, Gulf, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and CFP form the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd. (IOP) and negotiate agreement with Iranian government and for oil production in Iran
1956: Discovery of the Hassi-Messaoud oil field and Hassi R’Mel gas field, in the Algerian Sahara
1960: CFP absorbs the OFP (Omnium Francais Des Petroles) group
1970: French Petroleum Company of Canada founded. The company is renamed Total Petroleum (North America) later that year
1973: First listing of CFP shares on the London Stock Exchange
1978: CFP signs an agreement with Abu Dhabi covering development of the Upper Zakum field and production of butane and propane as well as the condensates associated with the oil produced by ADPC (GASCO)
1980: TOTAL acquires Vickers Petroleum Corp., expanding TOTAL’s presence in the United States
1985: CFP changes company name from CFP to TOTAL CFP
1985: TOTAL CFP acquires all United States hydrocarbon assets of Lear Petroleum Partners
1987: TOTAL CFP acquires hydrocarbon assets held by TIPCO in the United States as well as those of Francarep Italia, and divests of all refining assets and most of the Group’s marketing interests in Italy
1988: TOTAL CFP acquires CSX OIL & GAS in the United States
1991: TOTAL CFP changes company name to TOTAL
1991: Reduction of the French government’s direct share holding in TOTAL from 31.7% to 5.4%
1995: TOTAL signs agreements for establishing the Yemen gas liquefaction project and a development contract for the Iranian offshore fields Sirri A and E
1996: Divestment by the French State of a further 4% of TOTAL’s capital, reducing the government’s stake to 0.97%; TOTAL signs a production-sharing agreement for development of Algeria’s Tin Fouyé Tabankort field
1998: TOTAL announces details of its development plans for Iran’s giant South Pars gas field in coordination with the National Iranian Oil Co.

Corporate Offices:
TOTAL
24, Cours Michelet
92069 Paris La Défense Cedex
France
phone : 33 (0)1 41 35 40 00 (Switchboard)
fax : 33 (0)1 41 35 28 27


American Independent Oil Company (AMINOIL)

1947: Consortium of Phillips, Ashland, Signal Oil and Gas, J.S. Abercrombie, Sunray Mid-Continent Oil Co., Globe Oil and Refining Co., and Pauley Petroleum Inc formed to bid on Neutral Zone concession; Consortium is named American Independent Oil Company [Aminoil]
1948: Aminoil wins Neutral Zone concession from Kuwait
1970: Aminoil acquired by R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.


Eastern and General Syndicate

1919: Major Frank Holmes establishes Eastern and General Syndicate
1925: Eastern and General Syndicate wins al-Hasa Concession
1925: Eastern and General Syndicate awarded oil concession in Bahrain


Standard Oil Company

1870: John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler found Standard Oil
1882: Rockefeller organizes his various oil holdings into the Standard Oil Trust, with headquarters in New York
1886: Standard Oil founds Natural Gas Trust
1901: Standard establishes regional affiliate, Republic Oil
1907: Standard establishes Standard Oil of California
1911: Standard dissolved under court order, creating Standard Oil of New Jersey (Exxon), Standard Oil of New York (Mobil), Standard Oil [California] (Chevron), Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio, arm of BP), Standard Oil of Indiana (Amoco), Continental Oil (Conoco), Atlantic (ARCO)


Wikileaks: Saudi oil reserves overstated by 40%?

February 9, 2011
Aerial View of Oil Refinery
WikiLeaks cables suggest the amount of oil that can be retrieved has been overestimated. Photograph: George Steinmetz/Corbis via guardian.co.uk 

Saudi oil refinery. Cables released by Wikileaks report that Saudi oil reserves may be overstated by as much as 40%.

The US fears that Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest crude oil exporter, may not have enough reserves to prevent oil prices escalating, confidential cables from its embassy in Riyadh show.
The cables, released by WikiLeaks, urge Washington to take seriously a warning from a senior Saudi government oil executive that the kingdom’s crude oil reserves may have been overstated by as much as 300bn barrels – nearly 40%.
The revelation comes as the oil price has soared in recent weeks to more than $100 a barrel on global demand and tensions in the Middle East. Many analysts expect that the Saudis and their Opec cartel partners would pump more oil if rising prices threatened to choke off demand.
However, Sadad al-Husseini, a geologist and former head of exploration at the Saudi oil monopoly Aramco, met the US consul general in Riyadh in November 2007 and told the US diplomat that Aramco’s 12.5m barrel-a-day capacity needed to keep a lid on prices could not be reached.
According to the cables, which date between 2007-09, Husseini said Saudi Arabia might reach an output of 12m barrels a day in 10 years but before then – possibly as early as 2012 – global oil production would have hit its highest point. This crunch point is known as “peak oil”.
Husseini said that at that point Aramco would not be able to stop the rise of global oil prices because the Saudi energy industry had overstated its recoverable reserves to spur foreign investment. He argued that Aramco had badly underestimated the time needed to bring new oil on tap.
One cable said: “According to al-Husseini, the crux of the issue is twofold. First, it is possible that Saudi reserves are not as bountiful as sometimes described, and the timeline for their production not as unrestrained as Aramco and energy optimists would like to portray.”
It went on: “In a presentation, Abdallah al-Saif, current Aramco senior vice-president for exploration, reported that Aramco has 716bn barrels of total reserves, of which 51% are recoverable, and that in 20 years Aramco will have 900bn barrels of reserves.
“Al-Husseini disagrees with this analysis, believing Aramco’s reserves are overstated by as much as 300bn barrels. In his view once 50% of original proven reserves has been reached … a steady output in decline will ensue and no amount of effort will be able to stop it. He believes that what will result is a plateau in total output that will last approximately 15 years followed by decreasing output.”
The US consul then told Washington: “While al-Husseini fundamentally contradicts the Aramco company line, he is no doomsday theorist. His pedigree, experience and outlook demand that his predictions be thoughtfully considered.”

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